PRACTICE OF PROPER HANDWASHING AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG STAFF IN A MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY
Keywords:knowledge, attitude, practice, handwashing, Malaysia, associated factors, Terengganu
In higher education setting throughout the world, the practise of handwashing among staff is essential, particularly in the period of COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the overwhelming evidence on the effectiveness of proper handwashing, the knowledge, attitude and practice of handwashing among the staff of higher education have not been well investigated. Consequently, a cross-sectional study among staff in a university in Malaysia was conducted to identify the prevalence of proper handwashing and its associated factors. The data was collected using questionnaires in Google form from 18th June to 21st June 2020. Statistical analyses involved simple and multiple logistic regression with backward likelihood ratio method. Out of 349 participants, 31.8% (95% CI: 26.9,36.7) had proper handwashing practice. The results of the multivariable analysis revealed that the total knowledge scores (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.001, 1.071) and the total attitude scores (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.152, 1.321) were found to be significantly associated with proper handwashing practice among staff. Our study suggests that having the right knowledge and favourable attitudes are crucial towards achieving the proper handwashing practise. Additional supports for promoting a conducive ecosystem may also likely be needed to sustain a long-term practice of proper handwashing.
World Health Organization (WHO), Promote hand hygiene to save lives and combat COVID-19. 2020. (Online). https://www.who.int/southeastasia/news/detail/04-05-2020-promote-hand-hygiene-to-save-lives-and-combat-covid-19. (accessed 29 July 2020).
Jemal S. Knowledge and Practices of Hand Washing among Health Professionals in Dubti Referral Hospital, Dubti, Afar, Northeast Ethiopia. Adv Prev Med 2018;1–7.
Dajaan DS, Addo HO, Ojo L, Amegah KE, Loveland F, Bechala BD, et al. Hand washing knowledge and practices among public primary schools in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana. Int J Community Med Public Heal 2018; 5(6):2205.
The Global Handwashing Partnership. 2017. https://globalhandwashing.org/about-handwashing/why-handwashing/health/#_edn4 (accessed 25 September 2020).
Freeman MC, Stocks ME, Cumming O, Jeandron A, Higgins JPT, Wolf J, et al. Hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects. Trop Med Int Health 2014; 19(8):906–16.
Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research 2020; 24:91–8.
Malaysia, Ministry of Health (MOH). Covid-19: Management Guidelines for Workplaces. 2020. http://covid-19.moh.gov.my/garis-panduan/garis-panduan-kkm/Annex_25_COVID_guide_for_workplaces_22032020.pdf (accessed 9 September 2020).
Zivich PN, Gancz AS, Aiello AE. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious diseases in the office workplace: A systematic review. Am J Infect Control 2018; 46(4):448–55.
Ergin A, Bostanci M, Önal Ö, Bozkurt AI, Ergin N. Evaluation of students’ social hand washing knowledge, practices, and skills in a university setting. Cent Eur J Public Health 2011; 19(4):222–7.
Nawab T, Mehnaz S, Jafar Abedi A, Rehman Safwi S, Khalique N, Athar Ansari M, et al. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of hand hygiene among medical and nursing students in a tertiary teaching hospital. Ijsar 2015; 2(6):29–39.
Dupont, WD. and Plummer, WD. Power and Sample Size Calculations: A Review and Computer Program. Controlled Clinical Trials 1990; 11:116–128.
IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Rabbi SE, Dey NC. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study. BMC Public Health 2013;13(1):89.
Modi PD, Kumar P, Solanki R, Modi J, Chandramani S, Gill N. Hand Hygiene Practices Among Indian Medical Undergraduates: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Cureus 2017; 9(7):e1463.
Nair SS, Hanumantappa R, Hiremath SG, Siraj MA, Raghunath P. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Hand Hygiene among Medical and Nursing Students at a Tertiary Health Care Centre in Raichur, India. ISRN Prev Med 2014; 7:1–4.
International Water Association. COVID-19 – leading to behavioural change in handwashing? 2020. https://iwa-network.org/covid-19-leading-to-behavioural-change-in-handwashing/ (accessed 21 Aug 2020).
Accenture. COVID-19 Will Permanently Change Consumer Behavior. 2020. https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insights/consumer-goods-services/coronavirus-consumer-behavior-research (accessed 7 September 2020)