ASSOCIATION OF BELIEF ABOUT MEDICATION ON DRUG ADHERENCE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS, HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND HYPERTENSION IN THE COMMUNITY OF TWO SELANGOR DISTRICTS

  • Santralega Lingam Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Nicholas Mirad Ridos Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Kabir Singh Dhillon Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Tengku Arif Hamzah Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Leong Wye Hong Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Nazatul Shima Lazim Ishak Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Amuthaganesh Mathialagan Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Olivia Hui Yew Tee School of Medicine, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Malaysia
  • Isriyanti Rafae Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Anthony Cummins Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Kumaraswamy Kademane Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Irma Izani Mohamad Isa Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeon Ireland School of Medicine, Perdana University, 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7983-7206
Keywords: drug adherence, chronic conditions, Malaysia, beliefs about medication

Abstract

Poor drug adherence is a global problem, especially with the treatment of chronic conditions. Non-adherence to long-term medication is a complex phenomenon of multifactorial causation that include beliefs about medication. This study aimed to assess the association of beliefs about medications on patients' drug adherence to the treatment of chronic conditions. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 470 respondents and carried out in two semi-rural areas in Selangor, Malaysia. Respondents had one or more of the following chronic conditions: type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia and had been prescribed with long-term treatments for a minimum of three months. The validated questionnaires used were Belief about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ) and Adherence to Refill and Medication Scale (ARMS). From the correlation analysis, belief about medication necessity had positively correlated with drug adherence (r=-0.249, p<0.001). Meanwhile, belief about medication concern (r=0.235, p<0.001) and harm (r=0.214, p<0.001) were associated with reduction in drug adherence. However, no significant correlation was found between belief about medication overuse and drug adherence (p>0.005). In summary, patients’ beliefs about medication have a weak association with drug adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension in this community.

References

1. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) Fact Sheet 2017 [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2010 Aug 10]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
2. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R, Ahn SY, AlMazroa MA, Alvarado M, Anderson HR, Anderson LM, Andrews KG, Atkinson C, Baddour LM, Barker-Collo S, Bartels DH, Bell ML, Benjamin EJ, Bennett D, Bhalla K, Bikbov B, Bin Abdulhak A, Birbeck G, Blyth F, Bolliger I, Boufous S, Bucello C, Burch M, Burney P, Carapetis J, Chen H, Chou D, Chugh SS, Coffeng LE, Colan SD, Colquhoun S, Colson KE, Condon J, Connor MD, Cooper LT, Corriere M, Cortinovis M, Courville De Vaccaro K, Couser W, Cowie BC, Criqui MH, Cross M, Dabhadkar KC, Dahodwala N, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Delossantos A, Denenberg J, Des Jarlais DC, Dharmaratne SD, Dorsey ER, Driscoll T, Duber H, Ebel B, Erwin PJ, Espindola P, Ezzati M, Feigin V, Flaxman AD, Forouzanfar MH, Fowkes FGR, Franklin R, Fransen M, Freeman MK, Gabriel SE, Gakidou E, Gaspari F, Gillum RF, Gonzalez-Medina D, Halasa YA, Haring D, Harrison JE, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Hoen B, Hotez PJ, Hoy D, Jacobsen KH, James SL, Jasrasaria R, Jayaraman S, Johns N, Karthikeyan G, Kassebaum N, Keren A, Khoo JP, Knowlton LM, Kobusingye O, Koranteng A, Krishnamurthi R, Lipnick M, Lipshultz SE, Lockett Ohno S, Mabweijano J, MacIntyre MF, Mallinger L, March L, Marks GB, Marks R, Matsumori A, Matzopoulos R, Mayosi BM, McAnulty JH, McDermott MM, McGrath J, Memish ZA, Mensah GA, Merriman TR, Michaud C, Miller M, Miller TR, Mock C, Mocumbi AO, Mokdad AA, Moran A, Mulholland K, Nair MN, Naldi L, Narayan KMV, Nasseri K, Norman P, O’Donnell M, Omer SB, Ortblad K, Osborne R, Ozgediz D, Pahari B, Pandian JD, Panozo Rivero A, Perez Padilla R, Perez-Ruiz F, Perico N, Phillips D, Pierce K, Pope CA, Porrini E, Pourmalek F, Raju M, Ranganathan D, Rehm JT, Rein DB, Remuzzi G, Rivara FP, Roberts T, Rodriguez De León F, Rosenfeld LC, Rushton L, Sacco RL, Salomon JA, Sampson U, Sanman E, Schwebel DC, Segui-Gomez M, Shepard DS, Singh D, Singleton J, Sliwa K, Smith E, Steer A, Taylor JA, Thomas B, Tleyjeh IM, Towbin JA, Truelsen T, Undurraga EA, Venketasubramanian N, Vijayakumar L, Vos T, Wagner GR, Wang M, Wang W, Watt K, Weinstock MA, Weintraub R, Wilkinson JD, Woolf AD, Wulf S, Yeh PH, Yip P, Zabetian A, Zheng ZJ, Lopez AD, Murray CJL. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. Lancet Publishing Group; 2012 Dec 1;380(9859):2095–2128. PMID: 23245604
3. Guallar E, Banegas JR, Blasco-Colmenares E, Jiménez FJ, Dallongeville J, Halcox JP, Borghi C, Massá-González EL, Tafalla M, Perk J, De Backer G, Steg PG, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Excess risk attributable to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice settings across Europe - The EURIKA Study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11. PMID: 21923932
4. Rasiah R, Yusoff K, Mohammadreza A, Manikam R, Tumin M, Chandrasekaran SK, Khademi S, Bakar NA. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and socioeconomic variables in a nation undergoing epidemiologic transition. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1).
5. Brown MT, Bussell JK. Medication adherence: WHO cares? [Internet]. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Mayo Foundation; 2011 [cited 2018 Oct 26]. p. 304–314. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389250 PMID: 21389250
6. Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to medication [Internet]. New England Journal of Medicine. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2005 [cited 2018 Oct 26]. p. 487–497. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/abs/10.1056/NEJMra050100 PMID: 16079372
7. Bosworth HB, Granger BB, Mendys P, Brindis R, Burkholder R, Czajkowski SM, Daniel JG, Ekman I, Ho M, Johnson M, Kimmel SE, Liu LZ, Musaus J, Shrank WH, Buono EW, Weiss K, Granger CB. Medication adherence: A call for action. Am Heart J. 2011 Sep;162(3):412–424. PMID: 21884856
8. DiMatteo MR. Variations in patients’ adherence to medical recommendations: A quantitative review of 50 years of research. Med Care. 2004 Mar;42(3):200–209. PMID: 15076819
9. Kleinsinger F. The Unmet Challenge of Medication Nonadherence. Perm J. 2018 Jul 5;22. PMID: 30005722
10. Ramli A, Ahmad NS, Paraidathathu T. Medication adherence among hypertensive patients of primary health clinics in Malaysia. Patient Prefer Adherence [Internet]. Dove Press; 2012 Aug 31 [cited 2018 Oct 26];6:613–622. Available from: http://www.dovepress.com/medication-adherence-among-hypertensive-patients-of-primary-health-cli-peer-reviewed-article-PPA PMID: 22969292
11. Ferdinand KC, Senatore FF, Clayton-Jeter H, Cryer DR, Lewin JC, Nasser SA, Fiuzat M, Califf RM. Improving Medication Adherence in Cardiometabolic Disease: Practical and Regulatory Implications [Internet]. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Elsevier; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 26]. p. 437–451. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109716371765?via%3Dihub
12. Horne R, Weinman J, Hankins M. The beliefs about medicines questionnaire: The development and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of medication. Psychol Heal [Internet]. 1999 Jan [cited 2017 Oct 11];14(1):1–24. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08870449908407311
13. National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK). Medicines Adherence : involving patients in decisions about prescribed medicines and supporting adherence. R Coll Gen Pract [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2020 Jul 28];(January):1–364. Available from: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG76FullGuideline.pdf PMID: 21834197
14. Chew BH, Hassan NH, Sherina MS. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: A cross-sectional study. Patient Prefer Adherence. Dove Medical Press Ltd.; 2015 May 6;9:639–648.
15. Kripalani S, Risser J, Gatti ME, Jacobson TA. Development and evaluation of the Adherence to Refills and Medications scale (ARMS) among low-literacy patients with chronic disease. Value Heal [Internet]. International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR); 2009;12(1):118–123. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2008.00400.x PMID: 19911444
16. Lemay J, Waheedi M, Al-Sharqawi S, Bayoud T. Medication adherence in chronic illness: Do beliefs about medications play a role? Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018;12:1687–1698.
17. Sjölander M, Eriksson M, Glader EL. The association between patients’ beliefs about medicines and adherence to drug treatment after stroke: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. BMJ Open. 2013;3(9):1–8.
18. Horne R, Buick D, Fisher M, Leake H, Cooper V, Weinman J. Doubts about necessity and concerns about adverse effects: Identifying the types of beliefs that are associated with non-adherence to HAART. Int J STD AIDS [Internet]. 2004;15(1):38–44. Available from: r.horne@bton.ac.uk PMID: 14769170
19. Horne R, Chapman SCE, Parham R, Freemantle N, Forbes A, Cooper V. Understanding patients’ adherence-related Beliefs about Medicines prescribed for long-term conditions: A meta-analytic review of the Necessity-Concerns Framework [Internet]. PLoS ONE. 2013 [cited 2017 Oct 27]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846635/pdf/pone.0080633.pdf PMID: 24312488
20. Foot H, La Caze A, Gujral G, Cottrell N. The necessity-concerns framework predicts adherence to medication in multiple illness conditions: A meta-analysis. Patient Educ Couns [Internet]. Elsevier Ireland Ltd; 2016;99(5):706–717. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.11.004 PMID: 26613666
21. Costa E, Giardini A, Savin M, Menditto E, Lehane E, Laosa O, Pecorelli S, Monaco A, Marengoni A. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: Review of literature. Patient Preference and Adherence. Dove Medical Press Ltd.; 2015. p. 1303–1314. PMID: 26396502
22. Horne R. Compliance, adherence, and concordance: Implications for asthma treatment. Chest. American College of Chest Physicians; 2006. p. 65S-72S. PMID: 16840369
23. Laba TL, Brien JA, Jan S. Understanding rational non-adherence to medications. A discrete choice experiment in a community sample in Australia. BMC Fam Pract [Internet]. 2012;13. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/13/61 PMID: 22715853
24. Teow YEE, Ng SC, Azmi AHM, Hamzah MR, Kaur J, Mathiarasu DS, Mogan D, Ong SC, Subramaniam YP, Sweneson T, Tan JYM, Tee LW, Mathialagan AG, Tee HYO, Thomas W. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in a Non-urban Malaysian Population. J Community Health [Internet]. Springer; 2020 Jul 24 [cited 2020 Jul 29];1–7. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10900-020-00891-z
Published
2021-12-28
How to Cite
Lingam, S., Ridos, N. M., Dhillon, K. S., Hamzah, T. A., Wye Hong, L., Lazim Ishak, N. S., Mathialagan, A., Tee, O. H. Y., Rafae, I., Cummins, A., Kademane, K., & Mohamad Isa, I. I. (2021). ASSOCIATION OF BELIEF ABOUT MEDICATION ON DRUG ADHERENCE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS, HYPERLIPIDAEMIA AND HYPERTENSION IN THE COMMUNITY OF TWO SELANGOR DISTRICTS. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(3), 17-25. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.3/art.952