MALTREATMENT IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER CHILDREN FROM PARENT’S PERSPECTIVE IN BANGLADESH: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

  • M Atiqul Haque Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
  • Sharmin Islam Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
  • Anika Tasnim Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
  • Marium Salwa Research Assistant, Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
  • Sarmin Sultana Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
  • Shaheen Akhter Institute of Paediatric Neuro-disorder & Autism (IPNA), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Syed Shariful Islam Department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
  • Muhammad Ibrahim Ibne Towhid Center for Language Studies, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, Dhaka 1209, Bangladesh.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Child maltreatment, Prevalence, ICAST-P, Bangladesh

Abstract

Children with disabilities are at an increased risk of experiencing child maltreatment (CM). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CM among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Bangladesh. We interviewed 45 randomly selected mothers of ASD children who attended a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to treat their children. Data regarding CM was collected using a standard screening tool recommended by the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN). We asked mothers to report about their child-rearing practices to identify CM, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and neglect, along with their non-violent disciplinary practices. The children's age range was 3 to 9 years, and approximately 82 percent were boys. All children were found to have experiences of physical and psychological abuse throughout their childhood. Seventy-three percent of children experienced neglect during the past year while 82 percent during their entire childhood. The reported prevalence of sexual abuse was 4.4 percent in the past year and 8.9 percent during their childhood. However, all parents followed non-violent disciplinary practices, and the prevalence of maltreatment did not differ between boys and girls. Higher instances of CM in Bangladesh, especially among ASD children, raise concern for its adverse social consequences and calls for appropriate mitigation practices as proclaimed by the United Nations Child Rights Charter.

References

Gilbert R, Widom CS, Browne K, Fergusson D, Webb E, Janson S. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet. 2009;373(9657):68–81.10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61706-7

Hoover DW. The effects of psychological trauma on children with autism spectrum disorders: A research review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2015;2(3):287–299. 10.1007/s40489-015-0052-y

Fisher MH, Epstein RA, Urbano RC, Vehorn A, Cull MJ,WarrenZ.A population-based examination of maltreatment referrals and substantiation for children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019;23(5):1335-1340. 10.1177%2F1362361318813998

Sullivan PM, Knutson JF.Maltreatment and disabilities: A population-based epidemiological study. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2000;24(10):1257–1273.10.1016/s0145-2134(00)00190-3

Mandell DS, Walrath CM, Manteuffel B, Sgro G, Pinto-Martin JA.The prevalence and correlates of abuse among children with autism served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings. Child Abuse and Neglect.2005;29(12):1359–1372. 10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.06.006

Haque MA, Janson S, Moniruzzaman S, Rahman AKMF, Islam SS, Mashreky SR, Eriksson U-B.Children's exposure to physical abuse from a child perspective: a population-based study in rural Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2019;14(2):e0212428. 10.1371/journal.pone.0212428

Haque MA, Moniruzzaman S, Janson S, Rahman AF, MashrekySR, Eriksson U-B.Children's exposure to psychological abuse and neglect: A population-based study in rural Bangladesh. Acta Paediatrica. 2020.10.1111/apa.15340

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and Unicef Bangladesh: Child well-being survey in urban areas of Bangladesh, key results. Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2016; Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/CWS_in_urban_areas_Key_Findings_Report_Final_04122016.pdf.Accessed 13 January 2019

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, American Psychiatric Publishing 2013

Charan J, Biswas T. How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research? Indian J Psychol Med. 2013;35(2):121-126. 10.4103/0253-7176.116232

Runyan D, Brandspigel S, Zolotor A, Dunne M. Manual for administration: The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool (ICAST). West Chicago: ISPCAN. 2015.

Chen C, Wang X, Qin J, Huang Z. Psychometric testing of the Chinese version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Parent's Version (ICAST-P). Children and Youth Services Review.2020;109:104715. 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104715

O'Donnell O, van Doorslaer E, Wagstaff A, Lindelow M. Analyzing Health Equity Using Household Survey Data: A Guide to Techniques and Their Implementation. 2008, Washington, DC: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/6896 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO."

Duan G, Chen J, Zhang W, Yu B, Jin Y, Wang Y, Yao, M. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study. Child abuse & neglect. 2015;48:140–147. 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.018

Hoover DW, Kaufman J. Adverse childhood experiences in children with autism spectrum disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2017;31(2):128-132. 10.1097/yco.0000000000000390

Williams ME, Hastings R, Charles JM, Evans S, Hutchings, J. Parenting for Autism, Language, and Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. BMJ open. 2017;7(2):e014524. 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014524

AlgoodCL, Hong JS, GourdineRM, Williams AB.Maltreatment of children with developmental disabilities: An ecological systems analysis. Children and Youth Services Review.

2011;33(7):1142 1148.10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.02.003

McDonnell CG, Boan AD, Bradley CC, Seay KD, Charles JM, Carpenter LA. Child maltreatment in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability: results from a population-based sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019;60(5):576-584. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12993

Marlee Townsend, Bangladesh: The Forgotten Genocide,UAB Institute for Human Rights Blog, April 21, 2017

https://sites.uab.edu/humanrights/2017/04/21/bangladesh-forgotten-genocide/

Haider BMK.Students' radicalization: A study on private universities of Bangladesh. Norwegian University of Life Sciences. 2016. Retrieved from https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2425972/Haider-2016.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 20 February 2020

Belsky J.Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. Am Psychol. 1980;35(4):320-335. 10.1037//0003-066x.35.4.320

Mohajan HK.Child rights in Bangladesh. Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights.2014;2(1):207-238

Fattah KN, Kabir ZN. No place is safe: Sexual abuse of children in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2013;22(8):901- 914. 10.1080/10538712.2013.841310

Ferdous S, Chowdhury MS, Hossain R. Exploring the vulnerability of sexual abuse among the children with disabilities in Bangladesh. Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond. 2015;2(1):15-26. 10.5958/2349-3011.2015.00002.X

Murphy N. Maltreatment of children with disabilities: The breaking point. J Child Neurol.2011;26(8):1054-1056. 10.1177/0883073811413278

Moushumi KN. No really, let's talk about it. Dhaka Tribune. 10 Sept 2015. https://www.dhakatribune.com/uncategorized/2015/09/10/no-really-lets-talk-about-it-2

Sofuoğlu Z, Sarıyer GM, Ataman G. Child maltreatment in Turkey: Comparison of parent and child reports. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2016;24(3):217-222. 10.21101/cejph.a4155

Reed P, Osborne LA. Parenting and Autism Spectrum Disorders. In: Patel V, PreedyV, Martin C. (eds) Comprehensive Guide to Autism. 2014, Springer, New York, NY. 10.1007/978-1-4614-4788-7_5

Haque MA, Salwa M, Sultana S, Tasnim A, Towhid MII, Karim MR, Abdullah Al Mamun M. Parenting stress among caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A cross-sectional study in Bangladesh. J Intellect Disabil. 2021 Apr 22:17446295211002355. 10.1177/17446295211002355

Chung G, Lanier P, Wong PYJ. Mediating Effects of Parental Stress on Harsh Parenting and Parent-Child Relationship during Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic in Singapore. J Fam Viol 2020; 10.1007/s10896-020-00200-1

Published
2021-08-28
How to Cite
Haque, M. A., Sharmin Islam, Anika Tasnim, Marium Salwa, Sarmin Sultana, Shaheen Akhter, Syed Shariful Islam, & Muhammad Ibrahim Ibne Towhid. (2021). MALTREATMENT IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER CHILDREN FROM PARENT’S PERSPECTIVE IN BANGLADESH: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(2), 190-198. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.2/art.923