• Wafaak Esa Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Science University of Malaysia
  • Noran Hashim Kelantan Health Department, Ministry of Health, Malaysia
  • Noor Aman Hamid Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Science University of Malaysia
Keywords: Associated factor, Elderly, Fall, Health Screening


Falls in the elderly is one of the health issues. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of fall among the elderly and its associated factor. This was a cross-sectional retrospective record review study. Data from the elderly health screening programme of government health clinics in Kota Bharu, Kelantan were obtained. All elderly who participated in the programme for the year 2014 was eligible. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess for associated factors of falls with self-reported fall events. Data for n=434 participants were retrieved. The prevalence of falls among the elderly who participated in the health screening programme was 23.3% (95% CI: 0.19, 0.27). This study demonstrated that falls was associated with age more than 80 years old (OR adj 32.20, 95% CI: 8.54, 121.39; p<0.001), being female (OR adj 0.46, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87; p= 0.017), being employed (OR adj 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.26; p=0.001), obesity (OR adj 2.65, 95% CI: 1.20, 5.86; p= 0.016), symptoms of dizziness (OR adj 6.77, 95% CI: 1.39, 32.98; p= 0.018), imbalance and instability (OR adj 9.92, 95% CI: 1.39, 32.98; p<0.001), polypharmacy (OR adj 4.72, 95% CI: 1.20, 5.86; p=0.001) and increased waist circumference (OR adj 2.54, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.01; p=0.007). This study demonstrated that the prevalence of falls among the elderly is still an issue and its associated factors should be intervened.


Department of Statistics Malaysia. Population Projection (Revised), Malaysia, 2020-2040.2016

Department of Statistics Malaysia. Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2020.

Azidah AK, Hasniza H, Zunaina E. Prevalence of Falls and Its Associated Factors among Elderly Diabetes in a Tertiary Center, Malaysia. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2012 Jan 1;2012.

Rizawati M, Mas Ayu S. Home environment and fall at home among the elderly in Masjid Tanah Province. Journal of Health and Translational Medicine. 2008 Dec 29;11(2):72-82.

Sazlina, S., Krishnan, R., Shamsul, A., Zaiton, A. & Visvanathan, R. (2008). Prevalence of falls among older people attending a primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Jurnal Kesihatan Masyarakat, 14(1), 11-16.

Himes CL, Reynolds SL. Effect of obesity on falls, injury, and disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. Jan 2012;60(1):124-129.

Fjeldstad C, Fjeldstad AS, Acree LS, Nickel KJ, Gardner AW. The influence of obesity on falls and quality of life. Dynamic Medicine. 2008;7(1):4.

Mitchell RJ, Lord SR, Harvey LA, Close JC. Obesity and falls in older people: Mediating effects of disease, sedentary behavior, mood, pain and medication use. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015 Jan 1;60(1):52-8.

Department Of Statistics Malaysia. Preliminary Count Report, Population And Housing Census Of Malaysia. 2010.

Family Health Development Division. Health Status Screening For Older Person (Saringan Status Kesihatan Warga Emas) BSSK/WE/2008 Pind. 1/2013, Ministry Of Health of Malaysia. 2013.

Azhar AH, Yusof SM. Fall Risk Factors among Malaysian Older Adults. Journal Of Physical Activity, Sports & Exercise. 2013;1(1).

Malaysia MoH. Malaysia Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Obesity 2004.

Zamboni M, Mazzali G, Zoico E, et al. Health consequences of obesity in the elderly: a review of four unresolved questions. International journal of obesity. 2005;29(9):1011-1029.

Malaysia MOH. Malaysia Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Hypertension 2013.

Mathias S, Nayak U, Isaacs B. Balance in elderly patients: the" get-up and go" test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986;67(6):387-389.

Lin C-H, Liao K-C, Pu S-J, Chen Y-C, Liu M-S. Associated factors for falls among the community-dwelling older people assessed by annual geriatric health examinations. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18976.

Jeon BJ. The effects of obesity on fall efficacy in elderly people. J Phys Ther Sci. Nov 2013;25(11):1485-1489.

WHO EC. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet (London, England). 2004;363(9403):157.

Blaum CS, Xue QL, Michelon E, Semba RD, Fried LP. The association between obesity and the frailty syndrome in older women: the Women's Health and Aging Studies. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(6):927-934.

Hubbard RE, Lang IA, Llewellyn DJ, Rockwood K. Frailty, body mass index, and abdominal obesity in older people. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2010;65(4):377-381.

Quandt SA, Stafford JM, Bell RA, Smith SL, Snively BM, Arcury TA. Predictors of falls in a multiethnic population of older rural adults with diabetes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Apr 2006;61(4):394-398.

Honeycutt PH, Ramsey P. Factors contributing to falls in elderly men living in the community. Geriatr Nurs. Sep-Oct 2002;23(5):250-255.

Ambrose AF, Paul G, Hausdorff JM. Risk factors for falls among older adults: A review of the literature. Maturitas. 2013;75(1):51-61.

Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and ageing. 2006;35(suppl 2):ii37-ii41.

Helgadottir B, Laflamme L, Monarrez-Espino J, Moller J. Medication and fall injury in the elderly population; do individual demographics, health status and lifestyle matter? BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:92.

How to Cite
Esa, W., Hashim, N., & Hamid, N. A. (2021). A FALLS AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTOR AMONG THE ELDERLY: RESULTS FROM AN ELDERLY SCREENING PROGRAMME IN KELANTAN. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(2), 141-148. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.2/art.860