• Wan Marina Ismail Centre for Nursing Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences,University Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Zainuddin Awang Faculty of Economics and Management Science, University Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Idayubadilla Idris Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan, Malaysia




Quality of Life, Heart Failure, Physical and Emotional


Heart failure is a chronic disease that spoils patients' quality of life (QoL) and is associated with both high hospital readmission rates and healthcare resource utilization such as emergency services. The purpose of this study is to measure the quality of life using the validated   Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLWHF). The study used a non-experimental, quantitative design with a theoretical framework based on health-related quality of life among heart failure patients.  A simple random sampling method was used, which covered the medical and cardio clinics in two tertiary and secondary hospitals. The overall data were collected for four weeks from these hospitals. The total number of respondents in this study was 200. SPSS version 25.0 was used to analyse the data. The instrument was composed of three components, and the first component included eight items that measured the patients’ physical aspects. The second component measured other aspects that comprised eight items that covered social, work, and sexual topics, and the final component measured emotional aspects with five items. The overall MLHFQ scale consisted of 21 items. MLHFQ was translated into the Malay language by using back-to-back translation procedures by experts in their fields. The results of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) found that all 21 items were accepted due to factor loading being more significant than 0.6. However, question number 16part three relaying other aspects had a factor loading of only 0.67. As a result, for local use, this instrument needs to rearrange the items measuring the construct into their respective components accordingly before proceeding with data collection in the field study. In conclusion, for local content, this instrument needs to rearrange the items measuring the construct into their respective components accordingly before proceeding with data collection in the field study.


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How to Cite

Ismail, W. M., Zainuddin Awang, & Idayubadilla Idris. (2022). EXPLORING AND DEVELOPING ITEMS MEASURING QUALITY OF LIFE CONSTRUCT AMONG HEART FAILURE PATIENTS: A CASE OF MALAYSIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 22(1), 48–55. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.22/no.1/art.825