PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY IN SABAH, MALAYSIA BORNEO
The elderly population in Malaysia are multiplying, and older people's reliance on social services such as elderly institutions has increased. Mental health problems especially depression is one of the main problems with institutionalized elderly. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of depression among the elderly in all three state-run institutions in Sabah. A multi-centred, cross-sectional study was conducted on residents of all three state-run elderly institutions in Sabah (N=110). All residents that fulfil the criteria were included in the study through a self-administered set of validated questionnaires that measure perceived social support, loneliness, and depression. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences by IBM (IBM SPSS) v25 was used and Chi-Square and logistic regression for analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms is at 60.9%. The independent risk factors for depression in residents were male gender (OR=4.09, 95%CI=1.55, 10.79), perceived poor health status (OR=6.63, 95%CI=2.49, 17.65), and loneliness (OR=6.12, 95%CI=2.02, 18.53). Depression is prevalent among the elderly in the state-run institutions in Sabah, Malaysia. A comprehensive mental health screening program needs to be implemented for the elderly institutions along with adequate training for staff to handle mental health issues in the elderly.
United Nations. (No Title). World Population Ageing. https://www.un.org/en/development/des a/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WP A2017_Highlights.pdf. Published 2017. Accessed October 10, 2020.
DOSM. DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS MALA YSIA PRESS RELEASE ABRIDGED LIFE TABLES, MALAYSIA, 2017-2019.; 2019.
Doumit J, Nasser R. Quality of life and wellbeing of the elderly in Lebanese nursing homes. Int J Health Care Qual Assur. 2010;23(1):72-93. doi:10.1108/09526861011010695
Zm L, Kamal M. Prevalence of Demographic Profiles and Loneliness among Elderly Women in Private Care Institution The Effects of Talent Management Towards Job Satisfaction and Performance Management among Academicians in Selected Publis Higher Learning Institutions View project Prevalence of Demographic Profiles and Loneliness among Elderly Women in Private Care Institution. Artic Indian J Public Heal Res Dev. 2020;11(6). doi:10.37506/ijphrd.v11i6.10008
Ismail H, Nordin MSA, Zainan Abidin AW. The Elderly-Friendly Housing Design Features Preferences by Generations in Malaysia. Environ Proc J. 2020;5(15):141- 148. doi:10.21834/ebpj.v5i15.2510
Jongenelis K, Pot AM, Eisses AMH, Beekman ATF, Kluiter H, Ribbe MW. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients: The AGED study. J Affect Disord. 2004;83(2-3):135-142. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.06.001
Conradsson M, Rosendahl E, Littbrand H, Gustafson Y , Olofsson B, Lövheim H. Usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version among very old people with and without cognitive impairment. Aging Ment Health. 2013;17(5):638-645. doi:10.1080/13607863.2012.758231
Manungkalit M, Putu Wulan Purnama Sari N. The Influence of Anxiety and Stress toward Depression in Institutionalized Elderly. Vol 9.; 2020.
Shrestha K, Ojha SP, Dhungana S, Shrestha S. Depression and its association with quality of life among elderly: An elderly home- cross sectional study. Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res. 2020;38:1-4. doi:10.1016/j.npbr.2020.08.003
Pramesona BA, Taneepanichskul S. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among Indonesian elderly: A nursing home- based cross-sectional study. Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res. 2018;30:22-27. doi:10.1016/j.npbr.2018.04.004
Al-Jawad M, Rashid AK, Narayan KA. Prevalence of undetected cognitive impairment and depression in residents of an elderly care home. Med J Malaysia. 2007;62(5):375-379.
Xiang X, Danilovich MK, Tomasino KN, Jordan N. Depression prevalence and treatment among older home health services users in the United States. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2018;75(February 2017):151-157. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2017.12.005
Pramesona BA, Taneepanichskul S. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among Indonesian elderly: A nursing home- based cross-sectional study. Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res. 2018;30(November 2017):22-27. doi:10.1016/j.npbr.2018.04.004
Cacioppo JT, Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Thisted RA. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross- sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychol Aging. 2006;21(1):140-151. doi:10.1037/0882-7918.104.22.168
Tiikkainen P , Heikkinen R-L. Associations between loneliness, depressive symptoms and perceived togetherness in older people. Aging Ment Health. 2005;9(6):526- 534. doi:10.1080/13607860500193138
Rauch SAM, Morales KH, Zubritsky C, Knott K, Oslin D. Posttraumatic stress, depression, and health among older adults in primary care. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Off J Am Assoc Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14(4):316-324.doi:10.1097/01.JGP .0000199382.96115.86
Zhou W, Chen D, Hong Z, Fan H, Liu · Shen, Zhang L. The relationship between health- promoting lifestyles and depression in the elderly: roles of aging perceptions and social support. 2021;30:721-728. doi:10.1007/s11136-020-02674-4
Lenze EJ, Miller MD, Dew MA, et al. Subjective health measures and acute treatment outcomes in geriatric depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001;16(12):1149-1155. doi:10.1002/gps.503
Kim O, Byeon YS, Kim JH, Endo E, Akahoshi M, Ogasawara H. Loneliness, depression and health status of the institutionalized elderly in Korea and Japan. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2009;3(2):63-70. doi:10.1016/S1976-1317(09)60017-7
Jeffree MS, Ahmedy F, Avoi R, et al. Integrating digital health for healthcare transformation: Conceptual model of smart healthcare for northern Borneo. Int J Adv Trends Comput Sci Eng. 2020. doi:10.30534/ijatcse/2020/17912020