DETERMINANTS OF PATIENT SATISFACTION ON INTERIOR DESIGN QUALITY OF PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN MALAYSIA
Being in a hospital can be a stressful experience especially to the patients. The importance of design quality as a trigger to patients' satisfaction is becoming a topic of significant relevance as it also impacts the building operation. This study aims to determine the factors influencing the patients' satisfaction toward the interior design quality of inpatient units at public hospitals in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 483 inpatients from 5 Obstetrics and Gynaecology wards at public hospitals in the Klang Valley region. The Structural Equation Model (SEM) technique was applied to examine the causal relationship and to test the hypothesis of the patients' satisfaction toward the interior design quality. The results revealed that space planning (β = 0.265), lighting (β = 0.263), furniture (β = 0.243), and color (β = 0.138) have a significantly positive effect on patients' satisfaction toward the interior design quality. Whereas way-finding, safety, air quality and accessibility have no significant effect on the patients' satisfaction. This study concludes that certain qualities of interior design have great impact on patients' satisfaction. The findings proved that revamping the inpatient units' space planning can lead to significant patient experience improvements, while the aspect of accessibility is the least concern to the patients when they stay in the hospital. This study provides input to help designers, architects and hospital planners to evaluate their priorities in planning and designing better hospitals in the future.
2. Stern LA, Mac-Rae S, Gertis M, et al. Understanding The Consumer Perspective To Improve Design
Quality. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 2003; 16-28.
3. Ibrahim YS, Mohtar S, Hassan A, et al. Patient Perception on Service Quality Improvement among Public and Private Healthcare Providers in Nigeria and Malaysia. World J Prev Med. 2015; 3(4): 84–93.
4. Hospital sets up satisfaction unit to resolve customers' issues. The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/community/2012/09/14/hospital-sets-up-satisfaction-unit-to-resolve-customers-issues/(Assessed 13 December 2017)
5. Ulrich RS, Zimring C, Zhu X, et al. A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal 2008; 1(3): 61-125.
6. Huisman ERCM, Morales E, Hoof JV, et al. Healing environment : A review of the impact of physical environmental factors on users. Building and Environment 2012; 58: 70-80.
7. Van Den Berg AE. Health Impacts of Healing Environments. A review of evidence for benefits of nature, daylight, fresh air and quiet in healthcare settings. Groningen. The Architecture of Hospitals 2005. https://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/338544 (Assessed 11 July 2017)
8. Akpan-idiok P, Ackley A. Sustainable Therapeutic Environment: Impacts of the Indoor Environment on Users’ Perception of Wellbeing in Public Healthcare Facilities in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2017; 3(6): 27–37.
9. Haltman T, Coakley AB, Annese CD, et al. Exploring the sleep experiences of adult patients. Creative Nursing 2012; 18: 135-139.
10. Becker F, Parsons KS. Hospital facilities and the role of evidence-based design, Journal of Facilities Management. 2007; 5(4): 263–274.
11. Brady MK, Cronin JJ. Customer Orientation: Effects on Customer Service Perceptions and Outcome Behaviors. Journal of Service Research 2001b; 3(3): 241-251.
12. Farooqui RU, Ahmed SM. Designing for Quality: An Empirical Study of Design Quality Indicator (DQI) Tool. 7th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology 2009; 1–7.
13. Ching DK. Interior Design Ilustrated. New Jersey, US: John Wiley & Sons 2005.
14. Samah ZA, Ibrahim N, OthmanS, Abd Wahab MH. Assessing quality design of interiors: a case study of a hospital outpatient unit in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012; 35: 245-252.
15. Abbas MY, & Ghazali R. Healing Environment: Paediatric Wards – Status and Design Trend. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012; 49 : 28–38.
16. Oberlin J. Evidence that pediatric settings can heal. Health Care Design. 2008. http://www.healthcaredesignmagazine.com/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=92860F707A534EE6A9266DC828E2FBCA. (Assessed 17 October 2018)
17. Dijkstra K, Pieterse M, Pruyn A. Physical environmental stimuli that turn healthcare facilities into
healing environments through psychologically mediated effects: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2006; 56(2): 166–181.
18. Salonen H, Lahtinen M, Lappalainen S, et al. Positive impacts of environmental characteristics on health and wellbeing in health-care facilities: A review. Paper presented at the Healthy Buildings 2012, 10th International Conference, Official Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate conference, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, 8–12 July 2012. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/54368/16/54368.pdf (Assessed 22 January 2017)
19. Goh NA, Tahir MM, Sulaiman MKAM et al. Medical and the Architecture of Total Wellness The Potential and Development in Malaysia.World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 2010; 53: 1116-1119.
20. Khullar, D. Bad Hospital Design is Making Us Sicker. New York Times. 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/22/well/live/bad-hospital-design-is-making-us-sicker.html (Assessed 19 August 2018)
21. Haron SN, Alam S. Exploration of Usability Issues in Malaysia Public Hospital Spatial Design: Pilot Study. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2011; 1(4): 127-134.
22. Nawawi NM. In quest for Malaysian healthcare Space Standards: Are We Any Different? Labour Delivery Rooms as Bases for Comparative Study. 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Norwina_Mohd_Nawawi/publication/236852690_Title_In_quest_for_Malaysian_healthcare_space_standards_Are_we_any_different_-Labour_Delivery_Rooms_as_bases_for_comparative_study/links/02e7e5196f9116797a000000.pdf (Assessed 8 February 2018)
23. Awang Z. SEM Made Simple: A gentle approach to learning structural equation modeling. Selangor, MY: MPWS Rich Publication 2015.
24. Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sage focus editions 1993; 154: 136-136.
25. Joreskog K, Sorbom D. Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of Maximum Likelihood, User’s Guide. Scientific Software: Mooresville, IN 1984.
26. Tanaka JS, Huba GJ. A fit index for covariance structure models under arbitrary GLS estimation. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 1985; 38(2): 197-201.
27. Bentler PM. Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological bulletin 1990; 107(2): 238.
28. Bentler PM, Bonett DG. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological bulletin 1980; 88(3): 588.
29. Bollen KA. A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research 1989; 17(3): 303-316.
30. Marsh HW, Hocevar D. Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First-and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological bulletin 1985; 97(3): 562.
31. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, et al. SEM: an introduction. Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective. Pearson Education: Upper Saddle River 2010: 629–686.
32. Malhotra NK, Birks DF. Marketing research: An applied approach. Pearson education 2007: 732-733.
33. Sekaran U. (2003) Research methods for business: a skill building approach. Willey, New York.