FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THALASSAEMIA CARRIER AMONG FORM FOUR STUDENTS IN KEDAH, MALAYSIA

  • Rosidah Omar Family Health Unit, Kedah State Health Department, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Simpang Kuala, Jalan Kuala Kedah, 05400 Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Norizan Ahmad Family Health Unit, Kedah State Health Department, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Simpang Kuala, Jalan Kuala Kedah, 05400 Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Ngee Wen Sze Family Health Unit, Kedah State Health Department, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Simpang Kuala, Jalan Kuala Kedah, 05400 Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
Keywords: Thalassaemia carrier, school-based screening, prevalence, factors.

Abstract

Thalassaemia and abnormal haemoglobins are the most common genetic disorder worldwide. School-based screening thalassaemia program for form four students was introduced with the objective to screen for the thalassaemia status. There is paucity in the data in Kedah on distribution of thalassaemia carrier and the associated factors. Hence this study aims to identify the factors associated with being a thalassaemia carrier and to describe the laboratory cost for the thalassaemia screening. This study used secondary data from the school-based thalassaemia screening in 2018 obtained from Kedah State Health Department. Results showed the prevalence of thalassaemia carrier among form four students in Kedah was 10.91%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that students from Baling, Padang Terap and Yan were 1.40, 1.34 and 1.23 times more likely to be a thalassaemia carrier respectively compared to Kota Setar (aOR Baling 1.40;95% CI 1.21,1.64; aOR Padang Terap 1.34;95% CI 1.11,1.61 and aOR Yan 1.23;95% CI 1.03,1.47). Malay and Siamese students were five times more likely be thalassaemia carriers compared to Indian (aOR Malay 5.16;95%CI 3.42,7.79, aOR Siamese 5.63;95%CI 3.19,9.97). Meanwhile, Chinese students had 2.61 higher odds to be a thalassaemia carrier compared to Indian (aOR Chinese 2.61;95%CI 1.65,4.12). The laboratory cost for the thalassaemia screening ranged from RM2.14 to RM142.14 per participant. As for conclusion, this study reported high prevalence (10.91%) of thalassaemia carriers in Kedah. Our study also confirmed that the district and the ethnicity significantly influenced the thalassaemia carrier status. The identified factors should inform future thalassaemia campaign to prevent higher prevalence of thalassaemia patients.

References

Ministry of Health Malaysia. Guidelines on the National Thalassaemia Screening Programme in Malaysia. Division of Family Health Development. Ministry of Health Malaysia 2009:1-29.

Ministry of Health Malaysia. Clinical Practice Guideline on the Management of Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia. Division of Medical Development. Ministry of Health Malaysia 2009: 13-31

Ismail A, Campbell MJ, Ibrahim HM, et al. Health related quality of life in Malaysian children with thalassaemia. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2006; 4:39.

Ibrahim HM, eds. Malaysian Thalassaemia Registry Report 2018. Division of Medical Development. Ministry of Health Malaysia 2019.

Mohamed DI, Nordin NS, Daud MS, et al. Mapping of Thalassemia Carriers in Sabah and Kedah : A Unique Diversity of Thalassaemia Carrier Distribution in Malaysia. Hemoglobin 2019; 43(6):340-340.

Ministry of Education Malaysia. https://www.moe.gov.my/pendidikan/pendidikan-menengah/sekolah-menengah-kebangsaan-harian (accessed December 01, 2020)

Nuinoon M, Kruachan K, Sengking W, et al. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors. Adv Hematol 2014; 2014:1-6.

Safikah N. Latar Belakang Daerah Pendang. 2015. https://www.academia.edu/31826330/LATAR_BELAKANG_DAERAH_PENDANG (accessed Feb 08, 2020)

Riewpaiboon A, Nuchprayoon I, Torcharus K, et al. Economic burden of beta-thalassemia/HbE and beta-thalassemia major in Thai children. BMC Research Notes 2010; 3 (29): 1-7

Published
2021-04-24
How to Cite
Omar, R., Ahmad, N., & Ngee Wen Sze. (2021). FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THALASSAEMIA CARRIER AMONG FORM FOUR STUDENTS IN KEDAH, MALAYSIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(1), 134-140. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.1/art.714