• Irwan Syah MY Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. Malaysia
  • Ruhaizin S Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
  • Ismail, M.H Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. Malaysia.
  • Ahmad Zuhairi AM School of Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia



RULA, QEC, elderly, taxi driver, awkward posture, ergonomics


An elderly community may continue to serve their services to other jobs after retirement particularly in light works in accordance to their ability which can support the household income in such a challenging world. One of the professions that they could alternatively get involved is by being a taxi driver. Hence, the characteristic of elderly taxi driver is crucial to understand, primarily due to the ageing process which makes them more vulnerable towards injury. Sitting which is the working posture of a taxi driver should be properly done to avoid injuries among the elders. Improper seating posture is potentially unhealthy and considered as one of the major contributing factors for several musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) such as pain in the lower back part and shoulder. Due to increased exposures to seating posture inside the car, the proper sitting adjustment has become an important issue that demands adequate ergonomic interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted with elderly taxi drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. It included questions on social-demographic data, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC). Purposive method sampling is used according to these inclusive criteria; age 60 years old and above, self-driving taxi more than 1 year, no disabilities and registered with Ministry of Transport (MOT). Total of 443 respondents participated in the study. SPSS software version 20.0 to analyze data and RULA and QEC form was used. More than half elderly taxi driver used budget car (57.6%) type of taxi and most of elderly taxi drivers were smoking (66.0%). More than half respondents (70.0%) having felt back pain for the past 12 months and 75.4% feeling back pain the last seven days. 94.8% elderly taxi drivers complained of feeling low back pain. QEC showed higher score - neck (20.8%) and back body part (6.5%) and other factors at high score - driving (86.4%) and vibration (45.6%). RULA analysis body score at value score 7 (23.5%)- required immediate improvement and value score 5/6 (61.9%) - required investigation and needed to improve soon. Inappropriate seating posture among elderly taxi drivers may cause discomfort towards developing MSD. The implication of low awareness on ergonomics education could reflect quality lifestyle and health among elderly taxi drivers in Malaysia.


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How to Cite

Irwan Syah MY, Ruhaizin S, Ismail, M.H, & Ahmad Zuhairi AM. (2020). ACCESSING DRIVING POSTURE AMONG ELDERLY TAXI DRIVERS IN MALAYSIAN USING RULA AND QEC APPROACH. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(Special1), 116–123.