IS COVID-19 PREPAREDNESS AND ANXIETY CORRELATED? EMERGING DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN THE THAI CONTEXTS

  • Afifi Lateh Faculty of Education, Prince of Songkla University Pattani Campus
  • Prasopchai Pasunon Faculty of Management Sciences, Silpakorn University Petchaburi IT Campus, Petchaburi, Thailand
  • Kiflan Dolah Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital, Narathiwat, Thailand
  • Panida Kongjam WHO/TDR Collaborating Project, Thammasat University Rangsit Center, Pathum Thani, Thailand
  • Saminee Chemae Pattani Hospital, Pattani, Thailand
  • Phanupong Panomwan Office of the Education Council, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Alawee Lateh Faculty of Management Sciences, Prince of Songkla University Hatyai Campus, Songkhla, Thailand
Keywords: COVID-19, preparedness, anxiety, mental healthcare, Thai citizen

Abstract

It has been almost a half year since COVID-19 has forced all nations to speed up their outbreak preparedness as it simultaneously created significant public anxiety. This study investigated the canonical relationship between factors of COVID-19 preparedness and anxiety and proposed a conceptual model framework on these factors in the contexts of Thailand. This mixed-methods study employed an explanatory sequential design to conduct a two-phase exploration. Quantitative data were collected in the first phase using online questionnaires. The sample included 2808 respondents selected through a convenience and a snowball sampling. Data collection was conducted from March 29 to May 16, 2020, and content analysis was employed to process these data. The quantitative analysis with canonical relationship between COVID-19 preparedness and anxiety was 0.403 at a moderate level (p-value < 0.01). Thai citizens with high preparedness on risk mitigation and long-term outbreak mitigation planning tended to congruently demonstrate high anxiety towards responses of the government and public sectors, corruption, and misconduct. The conceptual model framework of qualitative analysis on preparedness were classified into three levels, i.e., individuals, families and communities, and social networks. COVID-19 anxiety that was related to a) responses of the government and public sectors, and b) corruption and misconduct, and also showed direct impacts on work and life anxiety. Thai citizens recognized and understood that self-reliance is mostly needed to relieve pandemic-related anxiety. Cooperation with public and private bodies on precautionary measures was deemed essential to prevent a second wave of spread.

References

Suwannik S. How will the world change? After the crisis of the Covid-19 ended? https://www.bot.or.th/Thai/ResearchAndPublications/articles/Pages/Article_30Mar2020.aspx [Assessed 2020 May 30].

Ali S, Asaria M, Stranges S. COVID-19 and inequality: are we all this together? Can J Public Health. 2020; 111: 415-416.

McGreal C. The inequality virus: How the pandemic hit America’s poorest. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/09/america-inequality-laid-bare-coronavirus [Assessed 2020 November 23].

Fagherazzi G, Goetzinger C, Rashid MA, Aguayo GA, Huiart L. Digital health strategies to fight COVID-19 worldwide: Challenges, recommendations, and a call for papers. J Med Internet Res. 2020; 22(6): e19284.

Hassan TA, Hollander S, van Lent L, Tahoun A. Firm-level exposure to epidemic diseases: Covid-19, SARS, and H1N1. https://www.nber.org/papers/w26971.pdf [Assessed 2020 May 30].

Atkeson A. What will be the economic impact of COVID-19 in the US? Rough estimates of disease scenarios. https://www.nber.org/papers/w26867.pdf [Assessed 2020 May 30].

Suwanprasert W. COVID-19 and endogenous public avoidance: Insights from an economic model. https://ideas.repec.org/p/pui/dpaper/128.html [Assessed 2020 May 30].

Bai Y, Lin CC, Lin CY, Chen J, Chue

CM, Chou P. Survey of stress reactions among health care workers involved with the SARS outbreak. Psychiatr Serv. 2004; 55(9), 1055-1057. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.9.1055

Lau JT, Yang X, Tsui HY, Pang E, WinG YK. Positive mental health-related impacts of the SARS epidemic on the general public in Hong Kong and their associations with other negative impacts. J. Infect. 2006; 53(2): 114–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2005.10.019

Peng EYC, Lee MB, Tsai ST, Yang CC, Morisky DE, Tsai LT, Weng YL, Lyu

SY. Population-based post-crisis psychological distress: An example from the SARS outbreak in Taiwan. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 2010; 109(7), 524–532. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0929-6646(10)60087-3.

Prince of Songkla University Pattani Campus. Survey results on measures and cooperation in surveillance of the COVID-19. https://administration.pn.psu.ac.th/pr-file/21Aprilnews.pdf [Assessed 2020 April 22].

Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, et al. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J. Psychiatry. 2020; 51:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int. J. Env. Res. Pub. Health. 2020; 17(5):1-25. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729

Zhang M, Ma ZF. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning province, China: A cross-sectional study. Int. J. Env. Res. Pub. Health. 2020; 17(7):1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072381

Lekfuangfu WN, Piyapromdee S, Porapakkarm P, Wasi N. On Covid-19: New implications of job task requirements and spouse’s occupational sorting. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3583954 [Assessed 2020 May 30].

Deeod P. The impact spread of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID–19) on occupation of a food delivery service. Journal of MCU Nakhondhat. 2020; 7(6): 131-144.

Suwanaphant K, Seedaket S, Vonok L, Assana S, Wawngam W, Kingsawad K, On-Kail P. Factors associated with stress due to corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among students of the Faculty of Public Health and Allied Health Sciences, Praboromarajchanok Institute. Journal of Health Science. 2020; 14(2): 138-148.

Wae A. COVID-19 and learning to change behavior in health today. Journal of The Health Education Professional Association. 2020; 35(1); 24-29.

Kleechaya P. Urbanites’ accessibility, understanding, evaluation and application of health information for their selfcare in international spreading of emerging infectious disease. Report Research of Health System Research Institute (HSRI); 2018. http://164.115.27.97/digital/files/original/6146d0dd1385e905faad6822bcdf5773.pdf [Assessed 2020 November 23].

Malkina-Pykh IG. An integrated model of psychological preparedness for threat and impacts of climate change disasters. The III International Conference on Disaster Management and Human Health: Reducing Risk, Improving Outcomes. C.A. Brebbia (Ed.), WIT Press, Southampton, 2013; 121-133.

Swift P, Cyhlarova E, Goldie I, O’Sullivan, C. Living with Anxiety: Understanding the role and impact of anxiety in our lives. London: Mental Health Foundation; 2014.

Hauksdottir A, Steineck G, Furst CJ, Valdimarsdottir U. Long term harm of low preparedness for a wife’s death from cancer: A population–based study of widowers 4-5 years after the loss. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2010; 175(4): 389-396.

Cagle JG, Kovacs PJ. Informal caregivers of cancer patients: perceptions about preparedness and support during hospice care. Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 2011; 54(1): 92-115.

Mutianingsih, Mustikasari, Panjaitan RU. Relationship between psychological preparedness and anxiety among elderly in earthquake prone areas. Enfermería Clínica. 2020; 30(3): 45-48.

Government Gazette. Ministry of Public Health on names and important symptoms of dangerous communicable diseases (Issue 7). 2020; 137(48d), p.1.

Ministry of Public Health. Stay at home, stop the infection, for the nation. https://www.moph.go.th/index.php/news/read/1700 [Accessed 22th February 20].

Daily News. Do it yourself easily! Hand wash gel anti-virus helper "COVID-19". https://dailynews.co.th/bangkok/757940 [Accessed 30th March 20].

Bangkok Business. Volunteer spirit "Thai people do not leave each other" in the crisis of COVID-19, we must survive. https://bangkokbiznews.com/news/detail/872635 [Assessed 2020 March 20].

Creswell JW, Clark VLP. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications; 2018.

Department of Provincial Administration. Announcement of the Central Registration Office regarding the number of citizens throughout the Kingdom. http://stat.dopa.go.th/stat/statnew/upstat_age.php [Assessed 2020 April 20].

National Statistical Office. Information and communication technology survey of households. http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014/Pages/News/2561/N26-10-61.aspx [Assessed 2020 March 20].

Chianchana C. Using multivariate statistics for research: Designing, analyzing, and interpreting. Bangkok: King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok; 2015.

Sherry A, Henson RK. Conducting and interpreting canonical correlation analysis in personality research: A user-friendly primer. J. Pers. Assess. 2005; 84(1):37–48.

Government Gazette. Public Administration in Emergency Situations 2005 (Issue 2). 2020; 137(76d), p.1.

Department of Disease Control. COVID-19 situation report. https://covid19.ddc.moph.go.th/ [Assessed 2020 June 4].

Twitter. Launch of the COVID10 global humanitarian response plan with DrTedros. https://twitter.com/WHO/status/1242821614426882054 [Assessed 2020 April 22].

Published
2021-08-28
How to Cite
Lateh, A., Prasopchai Pasunon, Kiflan Dolah, Panida Kongjam, Saminee Chemae, Phanupong Panomwan, & Alawee Lateh. (2021). IS COVID-19 PREPAREDNESS AND ANXIETY CORRELATED? EMERGING DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN THE THAI CONTEXTS. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(2), 29-37. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.2/art.627