CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ABOUT KNOWLEDGE ON WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS OF COLON CANCER AMONG THE SUBURBAN POPULATION OF MALAYSIA

  • Barani Karikalan Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Malaysia
  • Sakthi Shathi Selvanathan School of Medicine, Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Malaysia
  • Tai May Hun School of Medicine, Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Malaysia
  • Sangeeta Kaur Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Malaysia
Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Cancer risk factors, Cancer screening

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. This study aimed to determine the knowledge level of CRC signs and risk factors among the multi-ethnic sub-urban population based on age, gender and education attainment levels. A cross-sectional study was carried out among residents of Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam from 28th January 2019 till 4th February 2019 by using a convenient sampling method. 350 participants were recruited and assessed using a validated and modified self-administered Cancer Awareness Measures (CAM) questionnaire which consists of sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge on warning signs and risk factors of CRC. Analysis was performed for symptoms and risk factors awareness against independent variables. The participants of the study are the semi-urban population of Malaysia and were able to recognise the CRC symptoms and risk factors, and exhibited an average overall CRC knowledge level. The analysis showed that the older age group (age > 50) participants were more familiar with the CRC symptoms and risk factors. Males have a greater percentage in the ‘High’ level of knowledge category compared to females although there was no significance between gender and knowledge level based on statistical analysis. Education attainment levels were found to be associated with the knowledge level whereby highly educated participants were more aware of the CRC symptoms and risk factors. Knowledge level on CRC symptoms and risk factors was average among the multi-ethnic sub-urban population. Therefore, health awareness programmes on CRC should be tailored to all especially the lower educational attainment groups, females and younger individuals in order to increase their awareness and reduce the CRC incidence.

References

Global Cancer Observatory [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 20]. Available from: http://gco.iarc.fr/

Wolf AMD, Fontham ETH, Church TR, Flowers CR, Guerra CE, LaMonte SJ, et al. Colorectal cancer screening for average-risk adults: 2018 guideline update from the American Cancer Society: ACS Colorectal Cancer Screening Guideline. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018 Jul;68(4):250–81.

Bishehsari F, Mahdavinia M, Vacca M, Malekzadeh R, Mariani-Costantini R. Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: Environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention. World J Gastroenterol WJG. 2014 May 28;20(20):6055–72.

Azizah AM HB Nirmal K, Siti Zubaidah AR, Puteri NA, Nabihah A, Sukumaran R, Balqis B, Nadia SMR, Sharifah SSS, Rahayu O, Nur Alham O, Azlina AA. MNCR 2012-2016 FINAL (PUBLISHED 2019).pdf [Internet]. 2019 Jun [cited 2020 Apr 20] p. 34–7. Available from: https://drive.google.com/file/u/1/d/1BuPWrb05N2Jez6sEP8VM5r6JtJtlPN5W/view?usp=sharing&usp=embed_facebook

Azizah AM Nor Saleha I, Noor Hashimah A, Asmah Z, Mastulu W. Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report 2007-2011.pdf [Internet]. No 4, Jalan P7, Presint 7, 62250 Putrajaya, MALAYSIA: The National Cancer Institute; 2016 [cited 2020 Apr 18] p. 36–8. Available from: https://drive.google.com/file/u/1/d/1pCsJIw0ysFccCMFA0XqzfbYu1OFDRbO_/view?usp=sharing&usp=embed_facebook

Abu Hassan MR, Ismail I, Mohd Suan MA, Ahmad F, Wan Khazim WK, Othman Z, et al. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia. Epidemiol Health [Internet]. 2016 Mar 9 [cited 2020 Apr 18];38. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5081307/

Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 6th ed. BC Decker; 2003.

Mohd Hashim S, Tong SF, Omar K, Rashid MR, Shah SA, Sagap I. Knowledge of Colorectal Cancer among Patients Presenting with Rectal Bleeding and its Association with Delay in Seeking Medical Advice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev APJCP. 2011 Jan 1;12:2007–11.

Sindhu C, Nijar A, Leong P, Li Z, Hong C, Malar L, et al. Awareness of Colorectal Cancer among the Urban Population in the Klang Valley. Malays Fam Physician Off J Acad Fam Physicians Malays. 2019 Dec 31;14(3):18–27.

Su TT, Goh JY, Tan J, Muhaimah AR, Pigeneswaren Y, Khairun NS, et al. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. BMC Cancer. 2013 Aug 7;13(1):376.

Moghimi-Dehkordi B, Safaee A. An overview of colorectal cancer survival rates and prognosis in Asia. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2012 Apr 15;4(4):71–5.

Kloosterboer SM, Brekel K van den, Rengers AH, Peek N, Wit NJ de. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands: Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project. Eur J Public Health. 2015;

Yamagishi H, Kuroda H, Imai Y, Hiraishi H. Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancers. Chin J Cancer [Internet]. 2016 Jan 6 [cited 2020 Apr 18];35. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704376/

Malaysia: aging population 2019 [Internet]. Statista. [cited 2020 Apr 18]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/713529/malaysia-aging-population/

Sung JJY, Ng SC, Chan FKL, Chiu HM, Kim HS, Matsuda T, et al. An updated Asia Pacific Consensus Recommendations on colorectal cancer screening. Gut. 2015 Jan 1;64(1):121–32.

Center MM, Jemal A, Smith RA, Ward E. Worldwide Variations in Colorectal Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009 Nov 1;59(6):366–78.

Wong MCS, Hirai HW, Luk AKC, Lam TYT, Ching JYL, Griffiths SM, et al. The Knowledge of Colorectal Cancer Symptoms and Risk Factors among 10,078 Screening Participants: Are High Risk Individuals More Knowledgeable? PLOS ONE. 2013 Apr 3;8(4):e60366.

Pan Y, jin yu C, Haris A, Yuan A. Assessment of the level of knowledge of colorectal cancer among public at outpatient clinics in Serdang Hospital: a survey based study. Med J Malaysia. 2017 Dec 6;72:338–44.

Winterich JA, Quandt SA, Grzywacz JG, Clark P, Dignan M, Stewart JH, et al. Men’s Knowledge and Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer and Three Screenings: Education, Race and Screening Status. Am J Health Behav. 2011 Sep;35(5):525–34.

Mohd Radzniwan A Rashid1 Aznida Firzah Abdul Aziz1, Saharuddin Ahmad1, Shamsul Azhar Shah2, Ismail Sagap3*. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10:1163–6.

Mitchell E, Macdonald S, Campbell NC, Weller D, Macleod U. Influences on pre-hospital delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Br J Cancer. 2008 Jan 15;98(1):60–70.

Khayyat YM, Ibrahim EM. Public awareness of colon cancer screening among the general population: A study from the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. Qatar Med J. 2014;2014(1):17–24.

Chan AT, Giovannucci EL. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun;138(6):2029-2043.e10.

Yuhara H, Steinmaus C, Cohen SE, Corley DA, Tei Y, Buffler PA. Is Diabetes Mellitus an Independent Risk Factor for Colon Cancer and Rectal Cancer? Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;106(11):1911–22.

Power E, Simon A, Juszczyk D, Hiom S, Wardle J. Assessing awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms: Measure development and results from a population survey in the UK. BMC Cancer. 2011 Aug 23;11:366.

Malaysia diabetes report 2010 — 2045 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 17]. Available from: https://www.diabetesatlas.org/data/

Park H-C, Shin A, Kim B-W, Jung K-W, Won Y-J, Oh JH, et al. Data on the Characteristics and the Survival of Korean Patients With Colorectal Cancer From the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Ann Coloproctology. 2013 Aug;29(4):144–9.

Su TT, Goh JY, Tan J, Muhaimah AR, Pigeneswaren Y, Khairun NS, et al. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. BMC Cancer. 2013 Aug 7;13(1):376.

Shin A, Jung K-W, Won Y-J. Colorectal cancer mortality in Hong Kong of China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. World J Gastroenterol WJG. 2013 Feb 21;19(7):979–83.

Cuocolo R, Caruso M, Perillo T, Ugga L, Petretta M. Machine Learning in Oncology: A Clinical Appraisal. Cancer Lett. 2020 Apr 3.

Published
2021-04-24
How to Cite
Karikalan, B., Selvanathan, S. S., May Hun, T., & Kaur, S. (2021). CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ABOUT KNOWLEDGE ON WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS OF COLON CANCER AMONG THE SUBURBAN POPULATION OF MALAYSIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(1), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.1/art.598