USING THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION TO PREDICT SMOKING INTENTION AMONG NON-SMOKING SECONDARY SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENTS IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
The study aims to determine the relationship of attitude and social-norm with the intention to smoke in the future among non-smoking youth. Data were derived from a study on smoking among form four students in a selected secondary school in Peninsular Malaysia, which utilised a pre-validated questionnaire to obtain data from the selected respondents. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used in data analysis. The study revealed independent variables accounted for 22.6% of the variance in intention to initiate smoking and the model had a good fit. A significant relationship was observed between subjective norm and intention to initiate smoking (R=0.46). The study revealed that attitude and social norm substantially explained intention to smoke among non-smoking adolescents. Future measures should concentrate on correcting the subjective norms to reduce the intention to initiate smoking among non-smoking youth.
Institute of Public Health. National Health & Morbidity Survey 2015. . Malaysia: Ministry of Health; 2015.
Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Khoo YY, Subash Shander G, Jane Ling MY, Sumarni MG, Tee EO. Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyaHRB) study. Tobacco Induced Diseases 2017;15:9
Zhang Q, Yu B, Chen X, et al. Patterns of smoking initiation during adolescence and young adulthood in South-West China: findings of the National Nutrition and Health Survey (2010–2012)BMJ Open 2018;8:e019424. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019424
Badr HE, Francis K. Psychosocial perspective and suicidal behaviors correlated with adolescent male smoking and illicit drug use,Asian J Psychiatr. 2017;37:51-57.
World Health Organization (WHO), 2015. Tobacco. Fact Sheet N 339. Retrieved from. (Accessed 10 February 2020). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/.
Kelder SH, Perry CL, Klepp K-I, Lytle LL Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. Am J Public Health,1994; 84: 1121- 1126.
Lim KH, Sumarni MGi, Kee CC, Lim KK, Lim HL, Teh CH, Chan YY, Yeo LY, Fiona Goh SC, Khoo YY, Chong ZL, Normala I, Amal NM. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Smoking Intentions among Non-smoking and Smoking Adolescent in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(10):4359-66.
Zhu C, Cai Y, Ma J, et al. Predictors of intention to smoke among junior high school students in Shanghai, China: an empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80482.
Fishbein M, Azjen I (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behaviour. An Introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Stroup AM , Branstetter SA, Effect of e-cigarette advertisement exposure on intention to use e-cigarettes in adolescents, Addic Behav, 2018;82:1-6.
McGee CE, Trigwell J, Fairclough SJ, Murphy RC, Porcellato L, Ussher M& Foweather L Influence of family and friend smoking on intentions to smoke and smoking-related attitudes and refusal self-efficacy among 9–10 year old children from deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2015 15: 225.
Nor A, Zulkefli M, Rahmah MA, Lye MS, Md Said S, Fazilah S, Shamsul Azhar S. Smoking behavior among adolescents in rural schools in Malacca, Malaysia - a case- control study. Pertanika J Sci & Technol. 2015;23(1):13–28.
Lim KH, Teh CH, Lim HL, Lau KJ, Kee CC, Sumarni MG, Chan YY, Mohd Yusoff S, Hasimah I, Nor Azian MZ, Leni T, Lim KK, Cheong SM, Normala I Muhammad Fadhli MY. Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia -Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(11):4563- 4570.
Centers of Disease Control and Prevention.Global School Health Survey (GSHS). questionnaire. https://www.cdc.gov/gshs/questionnaire/index.htm(Acessed on 19.2.2021)
Centers of Disease control and Prevention. Youth Behavior Risk Surveillance. 2013. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyou.... Accessed on 29 Dec 2015.
Topa G, Moriano JA. Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SEM model. Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2010;1:23–33.
Lazuras L. Normative influences on intentions to smoke among Greek adolescents: the moderating role of smoking status. Tob Induc Dis. 2014;12(1):5.
Pires PP, Ribas, RC, and Borzekowski, DLG. Attitudes and intentions to smoke: a study of young Brazilian children. Child Care Health Dev,2015; 41: 1124– 1130.
Lim KH, Sumarni MG, Kee CC, Lim KK, Lim HL, Chan Y Yi, The CH, Lai WY, Ong SY, Yeo LY, Norhamimah A, Wymen S, Normala I. Correlates of Susceptibility to Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi District, Johor, Malaysia . Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(11):6971-6978.
Alanazi, N.H., Lee, J.W., Dos Santos, H. et al. The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers. Tob. Induced Dis. 2017. 15, 29
Bashirian S, Hidarnia A, Allahverdipour H, Hajizadeh E. Application of the theory of planned behavior to predict drug abuse related behaviors among adolescents. J Res Health Sci. 2012;12(1):54-60
Harakeh Z, Scholte RHJ, Vermulst AA, de Vries H, Engels RCME. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of The theory of planned behavior. Prev Med, 2004;39(5):951-961.
McMillan B, Higgins AR, Conner M. Using an extended theory of planned behaviour to understand smoking amongst schoolchildren. Addict Res Theory. 2005;13(3):293–306.
Santrock JW.(2018). Life-Span Development. McGraw-Hill Education, United States. OH
Guo Q, Johnson CA, Unger JB, et al. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking. Addict Behav. 2007;32:1066–1081.