EFFECT OF LOW-IMPACT AEROBIC DANCE AND ZUMBA EXERCISES ON BODY FAT PERCENTAGE IN OBESE WOMEN
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-impact aerobic dance and zumba exercises in reducing the percentage of body fat in obese women in terms of the Body Mass Index (BMI). Forty obese women (mean age 33.9±7.1 years) were selected and divided into two experimental groups, namely: low-impact aerobic dance (n=20) and zumba (n=20). The participants were also divided based on the BMI which gave the mild and severe obesity groups. The research instrument was a skinfold caliper which was used to measure the thickness of the body fat. The experiment was carried out 3 times a week for 8 weeks and the participants from both groups performed exercises for a duration of 60 minutes. The analysis of data between the experimental groups showed that there were significant differences between these exercises (r=0.005; p<0.05), the levels of obesity (r=0,000; p<0.05), and there were interactions between the exercises and the levels of obesity (r=0,000; p<0,05), from the pre-test to the post-test. The results showed that low-impact aerobic dance was more effectively used in reducing the percentage of body fat in obese women at the severe levels while zumba was effectively used in reducing the percentage of body fat in obese women with mild obesity, therefore the two exercises had an influence in reducing the percentage of body fat.
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet, 2017; 390(10113): 2627–2642. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
Inoue Y, Qin B, Poti J, Sokol R, Gordon-Larsen P. Epidemiology of obesity in adults: latest trends. Current Obesity Reports, 2018; 7(4): 276–288. doi: 10.1007/s13679-018-0317-8
Vo L, Albrecht SS, Kershaw KN. Multilevel interventions to prevent and reduce obesity. Current Opinion Endocrine and Metabolic Research, 2019; 4: 62–69. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.coemr.2018.11.002
Shanti H, Patel AG. Surgery for obesity. Medicine, 2018; 1-4. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2018.12.011
Wilborn C, Beckham J, Campbell B, Harvey T, Galbreath M, Bounty PL, Nassar E, Wismann J, Kreider R. Obesity: prevalence, theories, medical consequences, management, and research directions. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2005; 2(2): 4-31. www.sportsnutritionsociety.org
Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Cannon G, Ng SW, Popkin B. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obesity Reviews, 2013; 14(Suppl 2): 21–28. doi: 10.1111/obr.12107
Ng SW, Popkin BM. Time use and physical activity: a shift away from movement across the globe. Obesity Reviews, 2012; 13(8): 659–680. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00982.x
Popkin BM, Reardon T. Obesity and the food system transformation in Latin America. Obesity Reviews, 2018; 19(8): 1028–1064. doi: 10.1111/obr.12694
Laskowski ER. The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2012; 4: 840-844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.09.576
Williford HN, Scharff-Olson M, Blessing DL. The physiological effects of aerobic dance. Sports Medicine, 1989; 8(6): 335-345. doi: 10.2165/00007256-198908060-00003
Leelarungrayub D, Saidee K, Pothongsunun P, Pratanaphon S, YanKai A, Bloomer RJ.. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 2011; 15: 355-362. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2010.03.006
Kimura K, Hozumi N. Investigating the acute effect of an aerobic dance exercise program on neuro-cognitive function in the elderly. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2012; 13: 623-629.
Delextrata A, Bateman J, Esser P, Targen N, Dawes H. The potential benefits of zumba gold in people with mild-to-moderate Parkinson’s: feasibility and effects of dance styles and number of sessions. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 2016; 27: 68–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2016.05.009
Vendramin B, Bergamin M, Gobbo S, Cugusi L, Duregon F, Bullo V, Zaccaria M, Neunhaeuserer D, Ermolao A. Health benefits of zumba fitness training: a systematic review. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2016; 8: 1181-1200. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.06.010.
Habib SS. Body mass index and body fat percentage in assessment of obesity prevalence in Saudi adults. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2013; 26(2): 94‐99. doi: 10.3967/0895‐3988.2013.02.003
Razak F, Anand S, Vuksan V, Davis B, Jacobs R, Teo KK, Yusuf S. Ethnic differences in the relationships between obesity and glucose‐metabolic abnormalities: a cross‐sectional population‐based study. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 2005; 29(6): 656‐667. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802937
Rahim M, Ooi FK, Hamid WZWA. Blood immune function parameters in response to combined aerobic dance exercise and honey supplementation in adult women. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2017; 7: 165-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.06.001
Mackenzie B. 101 Performance Evaluation Tests. London: Electric Word plc; 2005.
Turnagöl HH. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 2016; 51: 103-112. DOI:10.1515/hukin-2015-0164
Donoghue WC. How to Measure Your % Bodyfat. Michigan: Creative Engineering; 2010.
Halvorsen S, Haakstad LAH, Edvardsen E, Bø K. Effect of aerobic dance on cardiorespiratory fitness in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Physiotherapy, 2013; 99: 42–48. doi:10.1016/j.physio.2011.11.002
Guerendiain M, Villa-Gonzalez E, Barranco-Ruiz Y. Body composition and dairy intake in sedentary employees who participated in a healthy program based on nutrition education and zumba. Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.032
Wiklund P, Alen M, Munukka E, Cheng SM, Yu B, Pekkala S, Cheng S. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: a randomized trial. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2014; 3: 217-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2014.03.013
Hausken K, Dyrstad SM. Heart rate, accelerometer measurements, experience and rating of perceived exertion in zumba, interval running, spinning, and pyramid running. Journal of Exercise Physiology online, 2013; 16(6): 39-50.
Barene S, Krustrup P, Jackman SR, Brekke OL, Holtermann A. Do soccer and zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science and Sports, 2014; 24: 990-999. doi: 10.1111/sms.12138
Cugusi L, Wilson B, Serpe R, Medda A, Deidda M, Gabba S, Satta G, Chiappori P, Mercuro G. Cardiovascular effects, body composition, quality of life and pain after a zumba fitness program in Italian overweight women. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 2016; 56(3): 328-335.
Krishnan S, Tokar TN, Boylan MM, Griffin K, Feng D, Mcmurry L, Esperat C, Cooper JA.. Zumba® dance improves health in overweight/obese or type 2 diabetic women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 2015; 39(1): 109-120. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.39.1.12
Ljubojevic A, Jakovljevic V, Poprzen M. Effects of zumba fitness program on body composition of women. SportLogia, 2014; 10: 29-33. https://www.sportlogia.com/no9engl/eng4.pdf
Micallef C. The effectiveness of an 8-week zumba programme for weight reduction in a group of maltese overweight and obese women. Sport Sciences for Health, 2014; 10: 211-217. doi: 10.1007/s11332-014-0195-
Luettgen M, Foster C, Doberstein S, Mikat R, Porcari J. Zumba: Is the “Fitness-Party” a good workout?. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2012; 11(2): 357–358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737860/
Otto RM, Maniguet E, Peters A, Boutagy N, Gabbard A, Wygand JW, Yoke M. The energy cost of zumba exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2011; 43(5): S329.
Nagaya T, Yoshida H, Takahashi H, Matsuda Y, Kawai M. Body mass index (weight/height2) or percentage body fat by bioelectrical impedance analysis: which variable better reflects serum lipid profile?. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 1999; 23(7): 771-774.
Frankenfield DC, Rowe WA, Cooney RN, Smith JS, Becker D. Limits of body mass index to detect obesity and predict body composition. Nutrition, 2001; 17(1): 26-30.
Wang C, Hou Xu-Hong, Zhang Ming-Liang, Bao Yu-Qian, Zou Yu-Hua, Zhong Wen-Hong, Xiang Kun-San, Jia Wei-Ping. Comparison of body mass index with body fat percentage in the evaluation of obesity in Chinese. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2010; 23: 173-179. www.besjournal.com