KNOWLEDGE AND PREVENTION PRACTICES OF HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE AMONG PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS IN BANDAR PUNCAK ALAM, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA

  • Nik Nur Hidayah Mansor Department of Pharmaceutical Life Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Azwandi Ahmad Department of Pharmaceutical Life Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Keywords: Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Practice, Caregiver, Parents

Abstract

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is mainly caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and human Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). Severe cases of HFMD were reported in Malaysia in 2018, which led to a temporary closing of few nurseries and preschools. A good knowledge and prevention practices is one of the important factors that can effectively decelerate this rapid outbreak of HFMD. Therefore, we conducted a survey to assess current knowledge and prevention practices among parents and caregivers in Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted on 345 residences of Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor. It comprised of 77.4% (n=267) parents and 22.6% (n=78) caregivers from different daycares, kindergartens and preschools. The study showed that the majority, 87.2% (n=301) of Bandar Puncak Alam residents, Selangor have a moderate level of knowledge on HFMD. No significant difference in knowledge was found between parents and caregivers (p = 0.553). Age, occupation, level of education, and income of respondents influenced the HFMD knowledge level (p<0.05). Most parents and caregivers know how to prevent HFMD by practising cleaning the children's toys using liquid disinfection, but they are still lacking knowledge on the role of handwashing in preventing HFMD. In conclusion, the lack of prevention practice among parents and caregivers would increase the cases of HFMD. Therefore, a proper education of HFMD should be done to increase the awareness towards the prevention practices to prevent HFMD from reoccurring.

References

CDC. Hand Foot and Mouth Disease | Causes and Transmission | HFMD | CDC [Internet]. CDC. 2017 [cited 2018 Sep 21]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/hand footmouth/about/transmission.html

WPRO. WPRO | Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease [Internet]. WPRO. WPRO | WHO Western Pacific Region; 2017 [cited 2018 Sep 21]. Available from: http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_10072012_HFMD/en/

Chan KP, Goh KT, Chong CY, Teo ES, Lau G, Ling AE. Epidemic hand, foot and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus 71, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9(1): 78–85.

The Star. HFMD cases exceed warning levels, says ministry. The Star [Internet]. 2018; Available from:

https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/07/12/hfmd-cases-exceed-warning-levels-says-ministry

Bernama. HFMD outbreak alert in Labuan. New Straits Times [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 May 20]; Available from: https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2019/01/451280/hfmd-outbreak-alert-labuan

Churchill Edward. A marked increase in HFMD cases this year. The Borneo Post [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 May 20]; Available from: https://www.theborneopost.com/2019/01/25/marked-increase-in-hfmd-cases-this-year/

Sample Size Calculator by Raosoft, Inc. [Internet]. [cited 2018 Dec 7]. Available from: http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html

Siti Aida SM, Haliza AR. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Among Nursery Governesses in Klang Valley, Selangor. Mal J Med Health Sci 2019. 15(SP4); 40-47

Hasnor WN, Othman CN, Che Lamin R. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) of Visitors in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang. TeSSHI "Synergising Transdiscipl Knowl a Sustain Tomorrow" 2012; 1–10.

Case A, Paxson C. Parental Behavior and Child Health. Health Aff 2002; 21(2): 164–78.

Anne C, Darren L, Christina P. Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient. Am Econ Rev 2002; 92(5);1308–34. Available from: http://ideas.repec.org/a/aea/aecrev/v92y2002i5p1308-1334.html

Ruan F., Yang T., Ma H., Jin Y., Song S., Fontaine R.E., & Zhu B.P. Risk factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina and the preventive effect of handwashing. Pediat. 2011; 127: e898–e904.

Xie YH, Chongsuvivatwong V, Tan Y, Tang ZZ, Sornsrivichai V, McNeil EB. Important roles of public playgrounds in the transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Epidemiol Infect 2015; 143: 1432–1441.

Zhang D, Li Z, Zhang W, Guo P, Ma Z, Chen Q, Du S, Peng J, Deng Y, & Hao Y. Hand-Washing : The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016; 13(6); 1-10

Luby S.P, Agboatwalla M., Feikin D.R, Painter J., Ward Billhimer MS, Altaf A., & Hoekstra R.M. Effect of Handwashing on Child Health: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 225–233.

Hii YL, Rocklov J, & Ng N. Short Term Effects of Weather on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6: e16796.

Ma E, Wong S, Wong C, Chuang SK, Tsang T. Effects of Public Health Interventions in Reducing Transmission of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. Pediat. Inf. Dis. J. 2011; 30: 432–435.

Li P, Li T, Gu Q, Chen X, Li J, Chen X, Chen Y, Zhang D, Gao R, He Z., Zhu X., Zhang W., Hao Y., & Zhang D. Children ' s Caregivers and Public Playgrounds: Potential Reservoirs of Infection of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease. Nat Publ Gr. 2016; 6(11); 1–6.

Suliman Q, Md Said S, Zulkefli NAM. Predictors of Preventive Practices Towards HFMD among Mothers of Pre-school Children in Klang District. Malaysian J Med Heal Sci. 2017; 13(3): 21–32.

Lou ML, Lin DJ. Exploration of the Healthy Behaviors Against Enterovirus and Its Related Factors in the Caregivers of Preschool-age Children. J Hung Kuang. 2006; 49: 145-162.

Ruttiya C, Tepanata P. Knowledge attitude and preventive behaviors towards hand foot and mouth disease among caregivers of children under five years old in Bangkok, Thai. J. Health Res 2013; 27(5): 281-286.

Nguyen TN, Pongjaturawit Y, Chaimongkol N. Factors Associated with Maternal Behavior in Prevention of the Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Young Children, Vietnam. Thai Pharma and Heal Sci J 2016; 11(1): 33-39.

Siriyaporn S, Pilasinee W, Pussadee L, Chandaporn I, Tawatchai A. Effectiveness of HFMD Prevention and Control Measures Between High and Low Epidemic Areas, Northern Thailand. J Health Res 2018; 32(3): 217–28.

Joyce HYC, Law CK, Esther H, Fung H, James R. Best practices to prevent transmission and control outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in childcare facilities: a systematic review. Hong Kong Med J 2017; 23:177–90

Nana G, Huilai M, Jian D, Yanxia M, Liang H, Ruiling G, Lijie Z. Effect of hand washing and personal hygiene on hand food mouth disease: A community intervention study. Medicine 2018; 97(51):1-7

Published
2021-04-24
How to Cite
Mansor, N. N. H., & Ahmad, A. (2021). KNOWLEDGE AND PREVENTION PRACTICES OF HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE AMONG PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS IN BANDAR PUNCAK ALAM, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(1), 29-36. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.1/art.485