THE PREDICTING FACTORS FOR CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AMONG HIGH-RISK POPULATION IN LOWER NORTHERN, THAILAND
This research aimed to explore the factors predicting chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the high-risk population. A cross-sectional study had been conducted in the high-risk populations investigated with and without CKD were the participants. A total of 1,463 samples was enrolled by a multistage sampling technique was used to recruit participants from five provinces in the lower northern of Thailand. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, and binary logistic regression. The results were revealed the risk factors affecting CKD including aged, dyslipidemia, being ill of diabetes mellitus, being unable to control blood pressure, being unable to control blood sugar level, taking add more salty seasoning to the cooked food, cooking with sodium salt over the prescribed amount, using the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, lack of exercise, herbal plants consumption as drugs that are toxic to the kidney, edema, foamy urine, and nocturia. All risk factors were able to co-predict the risk to CKD about 83.2% at the 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, to prevent early states with CKD in the high-risk populations, the focus should be on encouraging health literacy because health literary it has a positive relationship with health-promoting behaviors. The health care provider needs to concentrate on increasing health literacy for self– management with them.
Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, et al. Chronic kidney disease: Global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet. 2013; 382(9888):260-72.
Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, et al. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease -A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoSOne. 2016; 11(7):1-18. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158765.
Ingsathit A, Thakkinstian A, Chaiprasert A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in the Thai adult population: Thai SEEK Study. NDT. 2009; 25(5):1567-75.
Health data center (Thailand). Service Plan for Chronic Kidney disease 2018. Available from )accessed 10 Jan 2019(.
Honeycutt AA, Segel JE, Zhuo X, et al. Medical costs of CKD in the Medicare population. JASN. 2013; 24(9):1478-83.
National Health Security Office. National Health Security Fund Management Guide; Management of Chronic kidney disease services. Nonthaburi: sahamitr-printing-and-publishing. 2008-2013. (in Thai).
Ingsathit A, Chayakul C, Chaiprasert A, et al. (2017). Progression and outcomes of CKD in Thai SEEK population. Health Systems Research Institute. Available form https://kb.hsri.or.th/dspace/bitstream/handle/11228/4768/hs2353.pdf?sequence=3&isAl lowed=y (accessed 19 March 2018).
Kasemsup W, Limwattananonta S, Limwattananon C, et al. Evaluation of Access to services and renal replacement services under the health insurance system in Thailand. Available from http://kb.hsri.or.th/dspace/handle/ (accessed 10 Jan 2019).
CDC-INFO Contact Center. (2017). Take care of your kidneys and they will take care of you. Available form www.cdc.gov/ckd (accessed 19 March 2018).
Vejakama P, Ingsathit A, Attia J, et al. Epidemiological study of chronic kidney disease progression: a large-scale population-based cohort study. Medicine. 2015; 94(4): 1-8.
Health data center (Thailand). Service Plan for Chronic Kidney disease 2019. Available from https://hdcservice.moph.go.th/hdc/reports/(accessed 19 Jan 2019).
Bang H, Vupputuri S, Shoham DA, et al. Screening for occult renal disease (SCORED): a simple prediction model for chronic kidney disease. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167(4): 374-81.
Thakkinstian A, Ingsathit A, Chaiprasert A, et al. A simplified clinical prediction score of chronic kidney disease: A cross-sectional-survey study. BMC nephrology. 2011; 12.1:45.
Wayne WD. Biostatistics: A Foundation of Analysis in the Health Sciences (6th Ed.). John Wiley&Sons, Inc. 1995.
Allen IE, and Seaman CA. Likert scales and data analyses. Quality progress. 2007; 40(7): 64
Soongkhang S, Wangkaew S. Factors influence to the treatment results of chronic kidney disease In Diabetic patients in Udon Thani province. The Office of DPC 7 Khon Kaen. 2018; 24(2):1-9. (In Thai).
Wongprakob N, Piyabunditkul L. Predictive Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension. Baromarajonani College of Nusing, Nakhonratchasima. 2017; 23(2):94-106. (in Thai)
Lanktree MB, Theriault S, Walsh M, et al. HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides as risk factors for CKD: a Mendelian Randomization Study. AJKD.2018; 71(2): 166-72.
Xue L, Lou Y, Feng X, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated factors among the Chinese population in Taian, China. BMC nephrology. 2014; 15(1):205.
Laksawud S. Factor affecting diabetes nephropathy of diabetes type 2 patient, Nongkungsri hospital, Kalasin public health office 2013. RDHS. 2013; 7(1):272-28. (in Thai).
Consortium of Thai Medical, (Nonthaburi). Risk Factors for Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus visiting Hospitals in care of Ministry of Public Health and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration in Thailand. 2016. (in Thai).
Kovesdy C, Lu J, Molnar M, et al. Observational modeling of strict vs conventional blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease. JAMA internal medicine, 2014; 174.9:1442-49.
Bureau of Nutrition. Survey report of sodium chloride intake of Thai population, Available from: www.sem100library.in.th/opac/Catalog/BibItem (accessed 19 Jan 2019). (in Thai).
Ruaisungnoen W, Saensom D, Methakanjanasak N, et al. High sodium consumption situation and perception relevant to high sodium consumption associated with chronic kidney disease among people with chronic non-communicable disease. JNHC. 2018; 36(3):242-50. (in Thai).
Koh KH, Tan C, Hii L. Study of low salt diet in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IJC. 2011; 152: S104.
Nderitu P. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chronic kidney disease progression: a systematic review. Family Practice. 2013; 30(3):247-55.
Greenwood SA, Koufaki P, Mercer TH, et al. Effect of exercise training on estimated GFR, vascular health, and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with CKD:a pilot randomized controlled trial. AJKD. 2015; 65(3):425-34.
MY Lin, YW Chiu, CH Lee, et.al. Factors associated with CKD in the elderly and nonelderly population. CJASN. 2013; 8(1):33-40.
Kang KK, Choi JR, Song JY, et al. Clinical Significance of Subjective Foamy Urine. CMJ.2012; 48(3):164-68.
Pisharam JK, Daiwajna R, Chong VH, et al. Correlation of Urinary Foam with Proteinuria in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Transl Biomed. 2017; 8:2. DOI: 10.21767/2172-0479.100110
Wu MY, Wu YL, Hsu YH, et al. Risks of Nocturia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease-Do the Metabolic Syndrome and its Components Matter. AUAJ. 2012; 188(6):2269-73.