CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT WITH HIGH-SENSITIVITY CARDIAC TROPONIN I AND OTHER BIOMARKERS: AN OBSERVATIONAL COHORT STUDY IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA
Keywords:biomarkers, BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiovascular disease, homocysteine, troponin, Malaysia, risk classification, screening
Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health challenge in Malaysia, many Malaysians are unaware of their CVD risk. The measurement of biomarkers in the general population may help to identify at-risk individuals before the onset of symptomatic CVD. The aim of this community health screening project was to determine the distribution of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) and other biomarkers of CVD risk in the general population of Johor, Malaysia. A sampling of self-declared healthy volunteers was conducted during the 2016 Kembara Mahkota community event in Johor. Levels of hsTnI, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and homocysteine (HCY) were analyzed using the ARCHITECT immunoassay and clinical chemistry platforms utilizing fresh venous blood samples. Based on previous data, biomarker levels indicative of high risk were >10 and >12 ng/mL for hsTnI in women and men, respectively, BNP >50 pg/mL in the overall population, and HCY >13.6 µmol/L in women and >16.2 µmol/L in men. A total of 2744 volunteers participated in biomarker testing. Biomarker measurements showed that up to 10% of participants had moderate or high CVD risk based on hsTnI, approximately 2% were above the BNP threshold and >50% of subjects were above the HCY threshold. General population biomarker testing shows distribution of biomarker levels that may be indicative of CVD risk or the presence of disease and suggests that biomarker-guided risk strategies should be more widely implemented to determine the impact they would have on early detection and prevention of disease.
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