THE HUMAN PATHOGENS CARRIED BY THE COCKROACHES IN THE FOOD-RELATED ENVIRONMENT POTENTIALLY CAUSING A FOODBORNE DISEASES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Keywords:Cockroaches, Pathogen, Food-related environment, Foodborne disease
Cockroaches are one of the potential vectors on spreading disease and health problems for humans by contaminating foods, ingredients, or food storage. Cause of their habit and life in an unsanitary place, they can carry human pathogens in their body and contaminated. This review aims to know the types and prevalence of human pathogens carried by cockroaches in the food-related environment and discuss the possibility of human pathogens carried by cockroaches that can cause foodborne diseases. This systematic review conforms to the PRISMA guidelines. The initial search was done from four health-related electronic databases (PubMed Central, EBSCOhost, Proquest, and Scopus) for relevant literature on pathogens that isolated from the cockroaches. There are 129 articles identified in the initial search database. After screening and eligibility process, eight articles were identified for this review. It was found that most of the cockroaches captured in/around food handling establishment and human habitation. Furthermore, around 23 species pathogens, predominantly bacteria, were identified from the cockroaches. This review showed that cockroaches carry many pathogens, which can cause severe infections in humans, such as foodborne diseases through contaminated food.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne Diseases [Internet]. CDC.gov. 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 19]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/dotw/foodborne/
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne Diseases [Internet]. CDC.gov. 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 19]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/dotw/foodborne/
WHO. Food Safety [Internet]. WHO Website. 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 19]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/food-safety
Donkor ES. Nosocomial Pathogens: An In-Depth Analysis of the Vectorial Potential of Cockroaches. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019;4(1):14.
Bell WJ, Roth LM, Nalepa CA. Cockroaches : ecology, behavior, and natural history. The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2007.
WHO. Cockroaches. In WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data; p. 288–301. Available from: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resources/vector288to301.pdf
Solomon F, Belayneh F, Kibru G, Ali S. Vector potential of blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for medically important bacteria at food handling establishments in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Biomed Res Int [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Apr 4];2016:3490906. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294115
Brenner RJ, Kramer RD. Cockroaches (Blattaria). In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology [Internet]. 3rd ed. Elsevier; 2019 [cited 2019 Apr 6]. p. 61–77. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780128140437000066
Jacobs SB. American cockroaches. Coll Agric Sci. 2013;
Cochran DG. Cockroaches – Their Biology, Distribution and Control [Internet]. Vol. 3. WHO; 1999 [cited 2019 Jul 15]. p. 1–83. Available from: https://www.who.int/whopes/resources/who_cds_cpc_whopes_99.3/en/
Malik K, Jamil A, Arshad A. Study of Pathogenic Microorganisms in the External Body Parts of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) Collected from different Kitchens. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2019 Apr 4];7(6):45–8. Available from: http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jpbs/papers/Vol7-issue6/I0764548.pdf?id=7390
Graczyk TK, Knight R, Tamang L. Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects. Clin Microbiol Rev [Internet]. 2005 Jan [cited 2020 Jun 12];18(1):128–32. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15653822/
Memona H, Manzoor F, Riaz S. Species Diversity and Distributional Pattern of Cockroaches in Lahore, Pakistan. J Arthropod Borne Dis [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 21];11(June):249–59. Available from: http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/download/559/334
Mat Yusof A. Identification of Cockroaches as Mechanical Vector for Parasitic Infections and Infestations in Kuantan, Malaysia. J Entomol [Internet]. 2018 Mar 1 [cited 2019 Apr 4];15(3):143–8. Available from: http://www.scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2018.143.148
PAHO, FAO. Food Handlers Manual. Washington, DC: PAHO; 2017.
Kassiri H, Kazemi S. Cockroaches [periplaneta americana (L.), dictyoptera; blattidae] as carriers of bacterial pathogens, khorramshahr County, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2019 Jul 15];5(1):320–2. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/925792297/80752F2DB61F46E4PQ/1?accountid=17242
Wannigama DL, Dwivedi R, Zahraei-Ramazani A. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from periplaneta americana and blattella germanica in Varanasi, India. J Arthropod Borne Dis [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Jul 15];8(1):10–20. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1476493040/B64103A860904F86PQ/1?accountid=17242
Vazirianzadeh B, Dehghani R, Mehdinejad M, Sharififard M. The First Report of Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Brown-Banded. J Arthropod Borne Dis [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Jul 15];8(June):53–9. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1476493286/29EFC31882064533PQ/1?accountid=17242
Moges F, Eshetie S, Endris M, Huruy K, Muluye D, Feleke T, et al. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia. Biomed Res Int [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Jul 15];2016. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909895/
Oyeyemi OT, Agbaje MO, Okelue UB. Foodborne human parasitic pathogens associated with household cockroaches and houseflies in Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiol Control [Internet]. 2016 Mar [cited 2019 Apr 4];1(1):10–3. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2015.10.001
Tatang RJA, Tsila HG, Poné JW. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon. J Parasitol Res [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 Jun 17];2017:1–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28912965
Solomon F, Kibru G, Ali S. Multidrug-resistant pattern of food borne illness associated bacteria isolated from cockroaches in meal serving facilities, Jimma, Ethiopia. Afr Health Sci [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Jul 15];18(1):32–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016973/
Kebede A, Aragie S, Shimelis T. The common enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected individuals attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Hawassa university hospital, southern Ethiopia. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Jun 11];6:128. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741923/#:~:text=Enteric bacterial pathogens such as,patients %5B2%2C 3%5D.
Hirai Y, Tago SA, Ainoda Y, Fujita T, Kikuchi K. dwardsiella tarda bacteremia. A rare but fatal water- and foodborne infection: Review of the literature and clinical cases from a single centre. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol = J Can des Mal Infect la Microbiol medicale [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2020 Jun 11];26(6):313–318. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4692300/pdf/jidmm-26-313.pdf
Nasirian H. An overview of German cockroach, Blattella germanica, studies conducted in Iran. Pakistan J Biol Sci [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Aug 1];13(22):1077–84. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49829109_An_Overview_of_German_Cockroach_Blattella_germanica_Studies_Conducted_in_Iran/link/09e4150e03c7e477fc000000/download
Hadi UK. Lipas atau Kecoak Jerman, Blatella germanica [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2018 Aug 1]. Available from: http://upikke.staff.ipb.ac.id/files/2011/05/Lipas-Jerman.pdf
Hadi UK. Lipas atau Kecoak Oriental, Blatta orientalis [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2019 Aug 1]. Available from: http://upikke.staff.ipb.ac.id/files/2011/06/Lipas-Oriental.pdf
Nasirian H. New aspects about Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Blattellidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 1];6(12):1065–75. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.017
Abayasekara LM, Perera J, Chandrasekharan V, Gnanam VS, Udunuwara NA, Liyanage DS, et al. detection of bacterial pathogens from clinical specimens using conventional microbial culture and 16S metagenomics: A comparative study. BMC Infect Dis [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Aug 2];17(1):1–11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5606128/pdf/12879_2017_Article_2727.pdf
Kher S. Isolation and Identification of Bacteria. 2016.
Menasria T, Moussa F, El-Hamza S, Tine S, Megri R, Chenchouni H. Bacterial load of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) found in hospital environment. Pathog Glob Health [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Aug 1];108(3):141–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083176/pdf/pgh-108-03-141.pdf
World Health Organization, WHO. Burden of Foodborne diseases in the South-East Asia Region [Internet]. World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia, editor. Communicable diseases: a global perspective. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data; 2017 [cited 2019 Aug 2]. 109–124 p. Available from: http://www.searo.who.int/about/administration_structure/cds/burden-of-foodborne-sear.pdf
World Health Organization. Section 6: Features of important foodborne diseases. In: Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: Guidelines for Investigation and Control [Internet]. WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data; 2008 [cited 2019 Aug 2]. p. 54–93. Available from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/foodborne_disease/Section_6.pdf
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement [Internet]. Vol. 6, PLOS Medicine. PLOS Medicine; 2009 [cited 2019 Jul 19]. p. 1–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19621072