ANXIETY AMONG NON-HEALTH WORKERS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CROSS SECTIONAL ONLINE STUDY IN INDONESIA

Authors

  • Sri Idaiani Center for Preclinical and Clinical Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Aris Yulianto Center for Preclinical and Clinical Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Sundari Wirasmi Center for Preclinical and Clinical Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Maria Holly Herawati Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Roy GA Massie Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Rofingatul Mubasyiroh Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency IndonesiaCenter for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Indri Yunita Suryaputri Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Lely Indrawati Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Nikson Sitorus Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency IndonesiaCenter for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Siti Isfandari Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency IndonesiaCenter for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency Indonesia, Cibinong Science Center Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat 16915
  • Enung Nurkhotimah Bandung Health Polytechnic, Jalan Pajajaran No. 56 Bandung, Jawa Barat 40171

Keywords:

anxiety; worker; GAD-7; COVID-19, pandemic, chronic disease

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has an impact on all populations, including non-health workers. As the pandemic's trajectory remains uncertain, holistic, inclusive, and multidisciplinary, interventions become paramount. Therefore, this study aims to determine the anxiety level among non-health workers and its influential determinants. Participants were workers from the Ministry of Health in Indonesia. The on-line anxiety questionnaire used was the General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD-7). Data analysis was carried out using the STATA statistical program, and 1020 participant responses were analyzed. The proportion of non-health workers experiencing anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic was as follows: 26.7% (95% CI=24.03-29.47) experienced mild anxiety; 4.60% (95% CI=3.48-6.08) experienced moderate anxiety; and 1.76% (95% CI=1.11-2.78) experienced severe anxiety, while 66.90% (95% CI= 64.0-69.80) of respondents did not report anxiety. Furthermore, it was observed that having more than one chronic illness was the most contributing factor to anxiety (OR adj= 1.838 (95% CI=1.063 - 3.178)); p = 0.029. Unsurprisingly, it was found that the anxiety of non-health workers is lower than that of health care workers in Indonesia. In addition, the risk of experiencing anxiety is higher among workers with more than one chronic disease. A suggestion that can be made is that non-health workers must continue to control their health even during the pandemic.

References

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Giorgi G, Lecca LI, Alessio F, et al. COVID-19-Related Mental Health Effects in the Workplace: A Narrative Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 7857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217857

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Sim MR. The COVID-19 pandemic: major risks to healthcare and other workers on the front line. Occup Environ Med 2020; 77: 281–282. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106567

Traunmüller C, Stefitz R, Gaisbachgrabner K, et al. Psychological correlates of COVID-19 pandemic in the Austrian population. BMC Public Health 2020; 20: 1395. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09489-5

Trumello C, Bramanti SM, Ballarotto G, et al. Psychological Adjustment of Healthcare Workers in Italy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Differences in Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Burnout, Secondary Trauma, and Compassion Satisfaction between Frontline and Non-Frontline Professionals. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 8358. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228358

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Wang W, Song W, Xia Z, et al. Sleep Disturbance and Psychological Profiles of Medical Staff and Non-Medical Staff During the Early Outbreak of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China. Front Psychiatry 2020; 11: 733. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00733

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Mrklas K, Shalaby R, Hrabok M, et al. Prevalence of Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Health Care Workers and Other Workers in Alberta During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Survey. JMIR Ment Health 2020; 7: e22408. https://doi.org/10.2196/22408

Nyashanu M, Pfende F, Ekpenyong M. Exploring the challenges faced by frontline workers in health and social care amid the COVID-19 pandemic: experiences of frontline workers in the English Midlands region, UK. J Interprof Care 2020; 34: 655–661. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2020.1792425

Spurk D, Straub C. Flexible employment relationships and careers in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Vocat Behav 2020; 119: 103435. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2020.1792425

Von Gaudecker H-M, Holler R, Janys L, et al. Labour supply in the early stages of the CoViD-19 Pandemic: Empirical Evidence on hours, home office, and expectations, https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/13158/ (2020).

Holmes, E. A., O’Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., Ballard, C., Christensen, H., Cohen Silver, R., Everall, I., Ford, T., John, A., Kabir, T., King, K., Madan, I., Michie, S., Przybylski, A. K., Shafran, R., Sweeney, A. E. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet of Psychiatry 2020; 7: 547–560. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, et al. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 1092–1097. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092

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Published

2024-05-26

How to Cite

Idaiani, S., Yulianto, A., Wirasmi, S., Herawati, M. H., Massie, R. G., Mubasyiroh, R., … Nurkhotimah, E. (2024). ANXIETY AMONG NON-HEALTH WORKERS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CROSS SECTIONAL ONLINE STUDY IN INDONESIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 24(1), 17–27. Retrieved from https://mjphm.org/index.php/mjphm/article/view/2193