THE SECOND-HAND SMOKE IN PREGNANCY AND ITS IMPACT TOWARD LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN DISTRICT OF ACEH BESAR, ACEH PROVINCE, INDONESIA

  • Ampera Miko Department of Nutrition, Health Polytechnic of Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia
  • Satrinawati Berkat Department of Midwifery, Health Polytechnic of Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia
Keywords: second-hand smoke, pregnancy, low birth weight (LBW)

Abstract

Smoking does not only endangers the smokers themselves but will also harm the people around them. These are the non-smokers also called the passive smokers or second-hand smoke.In particular pregnant women who are the second-hand smoke can lead low birth weight (LBW) babies. This study aims to determine the impact of second- hand smoke in pregnancy toward LBW   in the district of Aceh Besar in 2016. A case control study was done in district of Aceh Besar, Aceh province, Indonesia. The total sample was 120 neonates (1:1), 60 neonates were LBW (cases) and 60 neonates were normal weight (controls). Data collection was doneusing a questionnaire filled in by the parents. The univariate analysiswas described with percentages and the Wald-Wolfowithz run test was used for the bivariate analysis. The results showed that the majority of mothers had a good knowledge about the dangers of smoking, ie 91 or 75.8%. Most of the mothers had positive attitudes for male smokers. The smoking men are considered normal and acceptable, consisting of 73 mothers or 60.8%.  All the mothers in this study were non-smokers (100.0%). The majority of the fathers were smokers, 88   or   73.3%, and most of them smoked around their   pregnant wife, 55 fathers or 62.5%.  The results of the bivariate analysis indicated there was a significant impact of the second-hand smoke toward the LBW (P value <0.05). It means, mothers as a second-hand smoke during pregnancy have a risk to born the LBW baby

References

1. World Health Organization (WHO).Tobacco fact Sheet. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/facts heets/fs339/en/. (Accessed on 28 March 2016.)

2. World Health Organization (WHO).Tobacco. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/tobacco/en/. (Accessed on 28 March 2016)

3. Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). How tobacco smoke causes diseases.Available at:. Http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_stat isties/sgr/2010/consumer_booklet/pdfs/ consumer.pdf.. (Accessed on 22 April 2016).

4. World Health Organization. World cancer report(CCR) 2014. Chapter 2.1. ISBN 92- 832-0429-8.

5. World Health Organization (WHO). Prevalence of tobacco smoking. World Health. Available at: http://amapserver.who.int/gho/interactive_charts/tobacco/use/atlas.html. (Accessed on 28 March 2016).

6. Xu X. Bishop EE, Kennedy SM, Simpson SA, Pechacek TF. Annual healthcare spending attributable to cigarette smoking: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;48 (3):326-33

7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Health consequences of smoking – 50 years of progress: A report of the surgeon general. Available at:
https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_stat istics/sgr/50th-anniversary/index.htm. (Accessed on 28 March 2016).

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ). How tobacco smoke causes disease: what it means to you. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 21452462. (Accessed on 28 March 2016)

9. Raihan K,Azmawati MN. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular risk factor among male yout population. Malaysia. Journal of Public Health Medicine.2013;Vol.13(1): 28-36

10. National Academy of Sciences. Second- hand smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects: making sense of the evidence. Institute of Medicine. 2009.

11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report on carcinogens. Thirteenth Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): National Loxicology Program. 2014

12. Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). Secondhand smoke (SHS) Fact. Available at
:http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_stat istics/fact_sheets_/secondhand_smoke/g eneral_facts/index.htm. (Accessed on 13 July 2016).

13. Azmawati MN, Aisah M, Norfazillah A. Environmental tobacco smoke and its association with astma like sympthoms among malaysian children under 6 years old: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2015; 15 (2): 49-59

14. Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). Women and smoking. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_stat istics/sgr/50th-
anniversary/pdfs/fs_women_smoking_50 8.pdf. (Accessed on 13 July 2016).

15. American Pregnancy Association.Secondhand smoke and pregnancy. Available at: http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pre gnancy-complications/second-hand- smoke-and-pregnancy/.(Accessed on 20 July 2016).

16. Bachock N, Omar S. The effect of second- hand smoke exposure during pregnancy on the newborn weight in Malaysia. Malays J Med Sci. 2014;21(2):44-53

17. World Health Organization (WHO). Children: reducing mortality.Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/facts heets/fs178/en/. (Accessed on 13 July 2016).

18. World Health Organization (WHO). Newborn: reducing mortality. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/facts heets/fs333/en/. (Accessed on 13 July 2016).

19. WHO & UNICEF. Low births weight. New York WHO. 2007.

20. Kemenkes RI: Balitbangkes. Riset kesehatan dasar 2013. Jakarta. Kemenkes RI. 2013.

21. Kemenkes RI: Balitbangkes. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007. Jakarta. Kemenkes RI. 2008.

22. Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Profil kesehatan tahun 2015. Kota Jantho.Dinkes Kabupaten Aceh Besar. 2016

23. Fitria, Amin GM, Khaira N. Retrospective study of smoker risk factors on hypertension patient at health center Peukan Bada Great Aceh in 2014. Jurnal Kesehatan Ilmiah Nasuwakes, 2015; 8 (1): 14-22

24. Sofia. Environmental risk factors for the incidence of ari in infants in the working area of community health center Ingin Jaya District of Aceh Besar. Action Journal.2017; 2 (1)

25. Fleiss,J.L. Statistical for rate & proportion .3rd edition. New Jersey. A John Willey & Sons, INC Publication.2003

26. AndrianiH, Kuo HW. Adverse effects of parental smoking during pregnancy in urban and rural areas. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2014;14:414

27. Ting-Jung Ko ab, Li-Yi Tsai ac , Li-Ching Chu d , Shu-Jen Yeh b , Cheung Leung b , et al. Parental smoking during pregnancy and its association with low birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth offspring: A birth cohort study. Pediatrics and Neonatology. 2014; 55: 20e27

28. British Medical Association Board of Science and Education & Tobacco Control Resource Centre..Smoking and reproductive life The impact of smoking on sexual, reproductive and child health 2014.Available at . http://www. Bma.org.uk. (Accessed on 23 September 2016).

29. Mojibyan M, Karimi M, Bidaki R,Rafiee P & Zare A. Exposure of second hand smoke during pregnancy and preterm birth. Int J High Risk BehavAddict. 2013:1(4)

30. Khader YS, Al-Akour N, Alzubi IM, Lataifeh I.The association between second hand smoke and low birth weight and preterm delivery. Matern Child Health J. 2011; 15(4):453-9

31. Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking during pregnancy Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_inf ormation/health_effects/pregnancy/. (Accessed on 2 October 2016).
Published
2018-01-03
How to Cite
Ampera Miko, & Satrinawati Berkat. (2018). THE SECOND-HAND SMOKE IN PREGNANCY AND ITS IMPACT TOWARD LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN DISTRICT OF ACEH BESAR, ACEH PROVINCE, INDONESIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 17(3), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.17/no.3/art.219