• Rosnani Zakaria Family Medicine Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohamad Community Medicine Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Nik Rosmawati Nik Husain Community Medicine Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Wan Nor Arifin Wan Mansor Biostatistics and Research Methodology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Nur Aiza Idris Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Norhasmah Mohd Zain School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Norhidayah Zakaria School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Azlina Ishak Family Medicine Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia


questionnaire; validation; knowledge; attitude; practice; stigma; tuberculosis; young population


There are challenges in controlling TB in Malaysia among young adults. To understand young adults’ knowledge, attitudes, practices, and stigma regarding TB, a valid and reliable measurement instrument must be developed and validated. We aim to develop and validate a new questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes, practices, and stigma regarding TB (KAPS-TB) for the young populations in Malaysia. Between the year 2017 and 2020, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases to validate KAPS-TB. Phase 1 involved 236 participants from secondary school students in Kelantan and Phase 2 involved 364 students from Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Kelantan. KAPS-TB comprised sociodemographic characteristics and KAPS (knowledge, attitude, practice and stigma respectively). The knowledge section was analysed by the two-parameter logistic item response theory. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the construct and reliability of items for the attitude and stigma sections. Validated KAPS-TB comprised 22, 5, 6 and 11 items on knowledge, attitude, practice and stigma, respectively. Overall, the results showed that each section presented valid and reliable items. KAPS-TB provides a valid and reliable instrument that could also be used to examine the effects of TB health education among the young population and to improve TB prevention and control.



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How to Cite

Zakaria, R., Wan Mohamad, W. M. Z., Nik Husain, N. R., Wan Mansor, W. N. A., Idris, N. A., Mohd Zain, N., … Ishak, A. (2023). DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTICE AND STIGMA QUESTIONNAIRE ON TUBERCULOSIS IN MALAYSIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 23(3), 64–75. Retrieved from