• Dr Rahmat Dapari Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UPM
  • Wan Muhd Zainol Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Haziq Alias Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Nurfarhana Zamri Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Nadila Dzulkfli Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Mardhiyah Rusdi Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Zawiah Mansor Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Nazri Che Dom Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Mohd Rohaizat Hassan Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim Public Health Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


Treated water demand, domestic, non-domestic, factors, and determinants


Water demand can be classified into domestic demand and non-domestic demand.  Globally, water demand modelling for forecasting and projection has become a popular subject for study in recent years. Studies of water demand aid the water utilities agency and municipal planning in guaranteeing financial, socioecological, and social sustainability. This systematic review aims to present and systematically determine the factors associated with the demand for treated water. Articles related to factors associated with demand for treated water were collected electronically from two different databases, namely Ebscohost (116) and Scopus (250). Two pairs of independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of the collected data, stored in Microsoft Excel, against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, the included articles were critically appraised to assess the quality of the studies using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Of the 366 articles identified, nine were included in the final review. The demand of treated water is affected by (i) Socioeconomic factors, (ii) Structural factors, (iii) Water supply factors, and (iv) Climate/ Geographical factors. The  supply of treated water is becoming increasingly limited, due to variuos issues. Therefore, understanding the factors influencing the demand for treated water is critical. The findings from all the related studies may be utilized to improve the implementation of treated water solution programmes, which would help to maximize the successful implementation of demand for treated water programmes.


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How to Cite

Dr Rahmat Dapari, Zainol, W. M., Alias, H., Zamri, N., Dzulkfli, N., Rusdi, M., … Abdul Rahim, S. S. S. (2024). FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMAND FOR TREATED WATER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 24(1), 110–122. Retrieved from https://mjphm.org/index.php/mjphm/article/view/2153