ANDERSON BEHAVIORAL MODEL FOR HEALTH SERVICE UTILIZATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
Keywords:Anderson Behavioral model, Healthcare services, Immigrants, Awareness.
The population of immigrants in Malaysia has increased from 1.4 million back in 2000 to 5.3 million in 2018 besides the undocumented workers who are at high risk of poor physical, interaction problems and lack of health protection. This research has been carried out to study the immigrant populations awareness, accessibility and utilization of healthcare services based on Anderson’s Behavioural model among immigrants in Selangor, Malaysia. A cross sectional sampling technique involving immigrants at Selangor was carried out where a total of 271 respondents were assessed for their awareness regarding the availability, utilization and perception of the quality of healthcare services. Almost all of the immigrants reported being ted aware on the health services that are offered to immigrants although 47.2% of them expressed communication and language barriers to get the service. The majority of the immigrants can access to health service and 64.6% of the immigrants have sufficient information regarding healthcare services in Selangor, Malaysia. There is a relationship between the demographic data regarding their awareness and their perception regarding the service. Conclusion: Most of immigrants in Selangor, Malaysia has high level of awareness of the healthcare services and has good usage of the healthcare services. The limited access of the healthcare services is mostly among those with lower income (39.1%) or inadequate knowledge about healthcare (64.6%). Besides, nationalities of immigrants also one of the factors that contribute to usage of healthcare services and it low in Asia immigrants (86.3%).
Attalla S. M. and Tema F. A. 2020. Awareness and accessibility of the immigrants to the healthcare services in Shah Alam, Malaysia; A pilot study. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 7 (3): 5396-5404. https://ejmcm.com/article_5506.html
Attalla S. M., Hamzah H., May W. W., Chew Zhuo Nan, Side Mohamed F., Amarjit Singh M., Saleem M. S., Santhraseharan M., Muhammad N., Chinapah P., Thiyakarajan R., Palanisamy S. and Sivarajah V. K. 2022. Analysis of the Challenges to Healthcare Access among the Economically Disadvantaged Population during the Movement Control Order for COVID-19 Pandemic in Selangor – Malaysia. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health (AJMH), 20 (5): 19-33. DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2022/v20i530462
Chuah FLH, Tan ST, Yeo J, Legido-Quigley H. The health needs and access barriers among refugees and asylum-seekers in Malaysia: a qualitative study. Int J Equity Health. 2018,17(1):120. doi: 10.1186/s12939-018-0833-x. PMID: 30111329; PMCID: PMC6094870.
Copeland, V. C. and Butler, J. (2007). Reconceptualizing access: A cultural competence approach to improving the mental health of African American women. Social Work in Public Health, 23(2-3), 35-58.
DOSM (Department of Statistics Malaysia). 2018. Key Statistics of Labour Force in Malaysia, July 2018. 2018. Retrieved at 30.11.2021 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218669&type=printable
DOSM (Department of Statistics Malaysia). 2019. Health and Social Services Expanded by 9.5 per Cent in Value of Gross Output of RM20.2 Billion in 2017 .Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Portal Retrieved at 27.12.2021 from https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=329&bul_id=NmEvSmNCOTZSWnRGWC82ZDhPZlN6Zz09&menu_id=b0pIV1E3RW40VWRTUkZocEhyZ1pLUT09
Evashwick, C., Rowe, G., Diehr, P., & Branch, L. (1984). Factors explaining the use of health care services by the elderly. Health Services Research, 19, 357-382.
Friedman, S. A., Frayne, S. M., Berg, E., Hamilton, A. B., Washington, D. L., Saechao, F., Maisel, N. C., Lin, J. Y., Hoggatt, K. J., & Phibbs, C. S. (2015). Travel time and attrition from VHA care among women veterans: how far is too far? Medical care, 53(4 Suppl 1), S15–S22. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000000296
Gelberg, L., Andersen, R., & Leake, B. (2000). The behavioral model for vulnerable populations: Application to medical care use and outcomes for homeless people. Health Services Research, 34, 1273-1302.
Ismail M and Rohaizat Y. 2002. Health Care Reform and Changes: The Malaysian Experience. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 14: No.1
Kim, J. H., Lee, K. S., Lee, Y., & Park, E. C. (2017). Association of Occupational Class with Healthcare Utilization among Economically Active Korean Adults from 2006 to 2014: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study of Koreans Aged 19 Years and Older. Korean journal of family medicine, 38(6), 365–371. https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2017.38.6.365
Kumar K. A., Sulaimi S., Mohamed J., Attalla S. M., Akter M. and Jeppu A. K. 2020. Perspective of patients on quality of healthcare in private general practice in Selangor. IJMTLM, 23 (3-4): 129 - 133. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-4614.2020.00057.1.
Legido-Quigley H, Leh Hoon Chuah F, Howard N (2020) Southeast Asian health system challenges and responses to the ‘Andaman Sea refugee crisis’: A qualitative study of health-sector perspectives from Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. PLoS Med 17(11): e1003143. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003143
Loganathan, T., Rui, D., Ng, C. W., & Pocock, N. S. (2019). Breaking down the barriers: Understanding migrant workers' access to healthcare in Malaysia. PloS one, 14(7), e0218669. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218669
MALAYSIAN EMPLOYERS’ FEDERATION (MEF), 2014. Practical guidelines for Employers on the recruitment, Placement, Employment, and Repatriation of Foreign Workers in Malaysia.
Mbanya VN, Terragni L, Gele AA, Diaz E, Kumar BN (2020) Barriers to access to the Norwegian healthcare system among sub-Saharan African immigrant women exposed to female genital cutting. PLoS ONE 15(3): e0229770. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229770
Mohammadbeigi, A., Arsangjang, S., Mohammadsalehi, N., Anbari, Z., & Ghaderi, E. (2015). Education-related Inequity in Access and Utilization of Oral Health Care in Iran. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 4(1), 35–38. https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.152248
Nguyen, Q. T., Naguib, R. N. G., Abd Ghani, M. K., Bali, R. K., & Lee, I. M. (2008). An analysis of the healthcare informatics and systems in Southeast Asia: a current perspective from seven countries. International Journal of Electronic Healthcare, volume 4 (2): 184-207. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=19792
Noor, Z. M., Isa, N., Said, R., & Jalil, S.A. (2011). The impact of foreign workers on labor productivity in Malaysian manufacturing sector. International Journal of Economics and Management, 5(1), 169-178.
Rebecca J. Schwei, Sam Del Pozo, Niels Agger-Gupta, Wilma Alvarado-Little, Ann Bagchi, Alice Hm Chen, Lisa Diamond, Francesca Gany, Doreena Wong, Elizabeth A. Jacobs, Changes in research on language barriers in health care since 2003: A cross-sectional review study, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2016, 54: 36-44, ISSN 0020-7489, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.03.001.
Scheppers E, van Dongen E, Dekker J, Geertzen J, Dekker J. Potential barriers to the use of health services among ethnic minorities: a review. Fam Pract. 2006 Jun;23(3):325-48. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmi113. Epub 2006 Feb 13. PMID: 16476700.
Seo J. Y., Ying-Yu, Yeung K. M. and Strauss S. M. 2019. Factors influencing health service utilization among Asian immigrant’s nail salon workers in the greater New York city area. J Community Health. 2019 February; 44(1): 1–11. doi:10.1007/s10900-018-0544-7.
Tolera H, Gebre-Egziabher T, Kloos H (2020) Using Andersen’s behavioral model of health care utilization in a decentralized program to examine the use of antenatal care in rural western Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 15(1): e0228282. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228282
Yang P.Q. and Hwang S.H. 2016. Explaining Immigrant Health Service Utilization: A Theoretical Framework. SAGE Open. April 2016. doi:10.1177/2158244016648137
Zhang S, Chen Q, Zhang B. Understanding Healthcare Utilization In China Through The Andersen Behavioral Model: Review Of Evidence From The China Health And Nutrition Survey. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2019; 12: 209-224