PREVALENCE OF DRIVING FATIGUE AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG LOGISTIC TRUCK DRIVERS IN MALAYSIA
Keywords:occupational fatigue, truck drivers, risk factors, psychomotor vigilance task
Fatigue is a very serious problem for transportation workers that contributes to various issues such as reduced alertness, slower reaction time, and deteriorating driving performance leading to road accidents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of driving fatigue and its associated factors with individual, work-related, physiological changes in heart rate, and reduced alertness among logistics truck drivers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 168 truck drivers employed in a logistics and transportation company in several locations including Klang Valley, Johor, and Penang. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and work-related information. The Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) were used to evaluate the fatigue and level of sleepiness of logistic truck drivers. A heart rate monitor and alertness impairment assessed psychological changes using psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Measurements were assessed before and after work conditions for subjective sleepiness scale, changes in heart rate, and alertness reduction via PVT. The prevalence of occupational fatigue among logistic truck drivers was 42.9%. There was a strong association between occupational fatigue with age (?= -0.329, 95% CI: -0.644 to -0.013), job satisfaction (?= -0.381, 95% CI: -0.502 to -0.260) and the need for recovery after work (?= 0.172, 95% CI: 0.067 to 0.277) respectively. A significant difference was found in sleepiness levels before and after driving conditions (p<0.001, t=-12.96). However, no significant association was found between heart rate and occupational fatigue (p> 0.05). For PVT mean, the results showed that significant differences were found before and after working conditions (p=0.009, t=2.44). The combination of subjective and objective evaluation of fatigue was identified as the variables contributing to driving fatigue. Age, job satisfaction, and the need for recovery were the intrinsic variables that should be put into consideration in order to overcome the driving fatigue of logistic truck drivers.
Maynard S, Filtness A, Miller K, et al. Bus driver fatigue: A qualitative study of drivers in London. Applied Ergonomics 2001; 92(103309)
Hamidun R, Wah Hoong AP, Roslan A, et al. Characteristics of heavy goods vehicles (HGV) accidents in Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2019; 512(1):1–9
Mohd SAH, Norazura I. Fatigue and its associated risk factors: a survey of electronics manufacturing shift workers in Malaysia. Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health and Behavior 2020; 8(1):49–59
Yazuli ZA, Karuppiah, K, Kumar, E, et al. Discomfort, fatigue and work-related musculoskeletal disorders associated with prolonged standing among Malaysian manufacturing workers: A mini review. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 2019; 41(2):271–275
Fauzi MFM, Yusoff HM, Manaf, MRA, et al. Intervention for occupational fatigue and sleepiness among healthcare workers working in shift: A Systematic Review. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine 2019; 19(2):47-53
Khamis N, Deros BM, Nuazi, M. Driving Fatigue among Long Distance Heavy Vehicle Drivers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Conference Proceeding Applied Mechanics and Materials 2014; 663:567–573.
Miskam F, Jasmin ZFZ, Aziz RA, et al. Assessment of Physical Fatigue for Train Drivers. Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 2014; 12(1):73–80
Seen KS, Tamrin, SBM, Meng, GY. Driving fatigue and performance among occupational drivers in simulated prolonged driving. Global Journal of Health Science 2010; 2(1):167–177
Al-Mekhlafi AA, Isha ASN, Sabir AA, et al. Fatigue assessment of oil and gas tanker drivers: psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-192). Solid State Technology 2020; 63(6): 4256-4262
CCOHS. Fatigue. Canadian Centre of Occupational Safety and Health. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/psychosocial/fatigue.html. Published 2020. Accessed February 20, 2020
Husain NA, Mohamad J, Idris MA. Daily emotional demands on traffic crashes among taxi drivers: Fatigue and safety motivation as mediators. International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences 2019; 43(4):268-276
Techera U, Hallowell M, Stambaugh N, Littlejohn R. Causes and Consequences of Occupational Fatigue : Meta-Analysis and Systems Model. J Occup Environ Med 2016; 58(10):961-973
Taylor AH, Dorn L. Stress, fatigue, health, and risk of road traffic accidents among professional drivers: The contribution of physical inactivity. Annu Rev Public Health 2006; 27(16):371-391
Ojel-Jaramillo RJM, Reiman A, Cañas Delgado JJ, et al. Delivery truck drivers’ work outside the cab: psychosocial discomforts and risks based on participatory video analyses. Eur Transp Res Rev. 2018; 10(2).
Atikah N, Hasan C, Karuppiah K, Hamzah NA, Bahri S, Tamrin M. Risk Factors of Fatigue : A Systematic Review Among Transportation Drivers. Malaysian J Med Health Sci. 2021;17:200-206
Perttula P, Ojala T, Kuosma E. Factors in the Fatigue of Heavy Vehicle Drivers. Psychological Reports 2011; 108(2):507–514.
Iridiastadi H, Abdurrahman I, Puspasari M, Soetisna HR. Fatigue And sleepiness during long-duration driving: A preliminary study among Indonesian commercial drivers. Transp Probl. 2020; 15(2):17-24
Yassierli, Mahachandra M, Sutalaksana IZ. Fatigue Evaluation of Fuel Truck Drivers. Procedia Manuf. 2015; 4:352-358Y
Maldonado CC, Mitchell D, Taylor SR, Driver HS. Sleep, work schedules and accident risk in South African long-haul truck drivers. S Afr J Sci. 2002; 98(7-8):319-324
Kwon S, Kim H, Kim GS, Cho E. Fatigue and poor sleep are associated with driving risk among Korean occupational drivers. J Transp Heal. 2019; 14:100572
Mahajan K, Velaga NR, Kumar A, Choudhary P. Effects of driver sleepiness and fatigue on violations among truck drivers in India. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2019; 26(4):412-422
Jo S-H, Kim J-M, Kim DK. Heart Rate Change While Drowsy Driving. J Korean Med Sci. 2019; 34(8)
Bhat S, Gupta D, Akel O, et al. The relationships between improvements in daytime sleepiness, fatigue and depression and psychomotor vigilance task testing with CPAP use in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Medicine 2018; 49:81–89.
Chen C, Zhang J. Exploring background risk factors for fatigue crashes involving truck drivers on regional roadway networks: a case control study in Jiangxi and Shaanxi, China. SpringerPlus 2016; 5(582).
Al-Mekhlafi ABA, Isha ASN, Chileshe N, et al. Modelling the relationship between the nature of work factors and driving performance mediating by role of fatigue. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021; 18(13)
Jansen NWH, Van Amelsvoort LGPM, Kristensen TS, et al. Work schedules and fatigue: A prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med 2003; 60(SUPPL. 1):47–53.
Åhsberg E. Dimensions of fatigue in different working populations. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2000; 41(3):231–241.
González Gutiérrez JL, Jiménez BM, Hernández EG, et al. Spanish version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI): Factorial replication, reliability and validity. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 2005; 35(8):737–746.
Lee S, Seong S, Park S, et al. Korean version of the Swedish occupational fatigue inventory among construction workers: Cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021; 18:(8).
Åkerstedt T, Gillberg M. Subjective and Objective Sleepiness in the Active Individual. International Journal of Neuroscience 1990; 52(1–2):29–37.
de Croon EM. Sluiter JK, Frings-Dresen, MHW. Psychometric properties of the Need for Recovery after work scale: test-retest reliability and sensitivity to detect change. Occup Environ Med 2006; 63(3):202–206.
Lim KH, Teh CH, Pan S, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015. Tobacco Induced Diseases 2018; 16(1).
Phatrabuddha N, Yingratanasuk T, Rotwannasin P. Assessment of Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue Among Chemical Transportation Drivers in Chonburi, Thailand. Safety and Health at Work 2018. 9(2):159-163
Meng F, Li S, Cao L, et al. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention 2015; 16(5):474-483.
Buczaj A, Anna P, Monika K, et al. Phenomenon of fatigue among professional drivers in poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 2021; 28(1):114–121.
Santos JA, Lu JL. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics : JOSE 2016; 22(4):508–513.
Useche SA, Ortiz VG, Cendales BE. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers. Accident; Analysis and Prevention 2017; 104:106–114
Abidin ANSZ, Abd SASAR, Lamin F, et al. Heavy commercial goods vehicle crashes in Malaysia. Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) 2021; 372.
Torregroza-Vargas NM, Bocarejo JP, Ramos-Bonilla JP. Fatigue and crashes: the case of freight transport in Colombia. Accident; Analysis and Prevention 2014; 72:440–448.
Duke J, Guest M, Boggess M. Age-related safety in professional heavy vehicle drivers: A literature review. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2010; 42(2):364–371.
Hajducik A, Medvecky S, Hrcek S, et al. A study of the behavior and responsibility of slovak drivers, especially in case of fatigue. Appl Sci 2021; 11(17).
Howard ME, Desai AV, Grunstein RR, et al. Sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing, and accident risk factors in commercial vehicle drivers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 170(9):1014–1021
Kanazawa H, Suzuki MTO, Yokozawa N. Excess workload and sleep-related symptoms among commercial long-haul truck drivers. Sleep and Biological Rhythms 2006; 4:121–128
Gander PH, Marshall NS, James I, et al. Investigating driver fatigue in truck crashes: Trial of a systematic methodology. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2006; 9(1):65–76.
Otmani S, Rog J, Muzet A. Sleepiness in professional drivers: Effect of age and time of day. Accid Anal Prev 2005; 37(5):930-937.
Sandberg D, Anund A, Fors C, et al. The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night—a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience. Sleep 2011; 34(10):1317–1325.
Patel M, Lal SKL, Kavanagh D, et al. Applying neural network analysis on heart rate variability data to assess driver fatigue. Expert Systems with Applications 2011; 38(6):7235–7242.
Persson A. Heart rate variability for driver sleepiness assessment. Master thesis 2019.
Baulk SD, Biggs SN, Reid KJ, et al. Chasing the silver bullet: measuring driver fatigue using simple and complex tasks. Accident; Analysis and Prevention 2008; 40(1):396–402.
Spector, P. (1994). Job satisfaction survey. Retrieved from https://paulspector.com/assessments/pauls-no-cost-assessments/job-satisfaction-survey-jss/. (Accessed 1 May 2022).
Gharagozlou F, Saraji GN, Mazloumi, A, et al. Detecting driver mental fatigue based on EEG alpha power changes during simulated driving. Iranian Journal of Public Health 2015; 44(12):1693–1700.
Samadi HR, Kalantari R, Mostafavi F, et al. Using the need for recovery scale to assess workload in mine workers and its relationship with demographics. Iran J of Ergon 2017: 4(4);1-7