FAMILY DIFFICULTIES AND CHILD STRESS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: DOES RELIGIOUS COPING MATTER AMONG MOTHERS?
Keywords:Coping strategies, COVID-19, stress syndrome, faith-based organizations, religions
Mothers’ stressors have increased due to the challenges faced by their families’ difficulties and children’s stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mothers’ conditions and coping strategies have become important to be identified so that solutions may be found and family resilience may be instilled. The present study is aimed to understand mothers’ perceptions towards family difficulties, children's stress, and religious coping throughout Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 473 mothers with children 7-15 years old living throughout 22 provinces in Indonesia between October and December 2020. Data collection was carried out online using a questionnaire utilizing Google Forms, which was shared via social media networks. The data were analyzed using the descriptive and chi-squared tests. This study found that 62.8% of mothers perceive that their family is going through difficulties, and 55% of children experience stress. Mothers’ religious coping was evident through regular prayers (96.6% respondents) and joining online faith-based communities (43.6% respondents). Respondents with family difficulties were more likely to practice regularly praying and to participate in online faith-based communities. Also, respondents who had children’s stress symptoms were more likely to practice regularly praying. Religious coping is one of the options that mothers can use as a means to regulate individual stressors. Increasing a mother’s knowledge and skills in performing coping mechanisms may be achieved through religious coping and other effective alternative solutions.
al. Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Child abuse & neglect. 2020; 110 (pt2): 1873-7757.
Griffith AK. Parental Burnout and Child Maltreatment During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of family violence. 2020: 1-7.
Lawson M, Piel MH, Simon M. Child Maltreatment during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Consequences of Parental Job Loss on Psychological and Physical Abuse Towards Children. Child abuse & neglect 2020; 110 (Pt2): 104709.
Patrick SW, Henkhaus LE, Zickafoose JS, et al. Well-being of Parents and Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A National Survey. Pediatrics. 2020; 146 (4): e2020016824.
Racine N, Cooke JE, Eirich R, et al. Child and adolescent mental illness during COVID-19: A rapid review. Psychiatry research 2020; 292: 113307.
Yeasmin S, Banik R, Hossain S, et al. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study. Children and youth services review. 2020; 117: 105277
Coyne SM, Rogers AA, Zurcher JD, et al. Does time spent using social media impact mental health? An eight year longitudinal study. Computers in Human Behavior. 2020; 104: 106160.
Figueiredo CS de, Sandre PC, Portugal LCL, et al. COVID-19 pandemic impact on children and adolescents' mental health: Biological, environmental, and social factors. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2021; 106: 110171.
Mikolajczak M, Raes M, Avalosse H, et al. Exhausted Parents: Sociodemographic, Child-Related, Parent-Related, Parenting and Family-Functioning Correlates of Parental Burnout. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2018; 27 (2): 602-614.
Sorkkila M,Aunola K. Risk Factors for Parental Burnout among Finnish Parents: The Role of Socially Prescribed Perfectionism. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2020; 29 (3): 648-659.
Mahoney A. Religion in families 1999 to 2009: A relational spirituality framework. Journal of marriage and the family. 2010; 72 (4): 805-827.
Pargament KI,Cummings J. Anchored by faith: Religion as a resilience factor. In: Reich JW, Zautra AJ,Hall JS, Editors. Handbook of adult resilience. New York The Guilford Press; 2010.
Cummings JP,Pargament KI. Medicine for the Spirit: Religious Coping in Individuals with Medical Conditions. Religions. 2010; 1 (1): 28-53.
Thomas J,Barbato M. Positive Religious Coping and Mental Health among Christians and Muslims in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Religions. 2020; 11 (10): 498.
Buchanan T. Why do people spread false information online? The effects of message and viewer characteristics on self-reported likelihood of sharing social media disinformation. PLoS One. 2020; 15 (10): e0239666.
Hasanah U,Dzawafi AA. Majelis taklim perempuan dan perubahan sosial pada masyarakat perkotaan. Indonesia: PKBM Ngudi Luhur; 2017 (in Indonesian).
Febriyani R, Rahman MT, Wibisono MY. Kondisi Kegiatan Keagamaan Muslim Perempuan .
pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19 di Wilayah Suburban. Jurnal Iman dan Spiritualitas. 2021; 1 (3): 263-271 (in Indonesian).
Soekapdjo S, Ratnawati N, Mariyanti T, et al. Pemberdayaan ekonomi rumah tangga yang terdampak pandemi Covid-19 melalui usaha mikro dan kecil di Kelurahan Mustikajaya. Yumary: Jurnal Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat. 2020; 1 (1): 25-33 (in Indonesian).
Suratno T. The education system in Indonesia at a time of significant changes. Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/ries.3814.
Schneider S. The International Standard Classification of Education 2011. Comparative Social Research. 2013; 30: 365-379.
UNICEF. Strengthening Digital Learning across Indonesia: A Study Brief. 2020 [accessed 13 June 2022]; Available from: https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/media/10531/file.
Central Bureau of Statistics. Regulation of head statistical centre number 37-year 2010 about classification urban and rural in Indonesia. 2010 [accessed 23 July 2021]; Available from: https://sirusa.bps.go.id/webadmin/doc/MFD_2010_Buku_1.pdf (Indonesian).
Mulyana W. Rural-urban linkages: Indonesia case study. Working Paper Series No 126; 2014 [accessed 23 July 2021]; Available from: https://www.rimisp.org/wp-content/files_mf/files_mf/1421349176126_R_ULinkages_Indonesia_countrycase_Final_edited.pdf.
Kusnandar VB. Value and Growth of GDP per Capita of Indonesia's Population (2000-2021). 2022 [accessed 13 June 2022]; Available from: https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2022/02/07/pendapatan-penduduk-indonesia-meningkat-menjadi-rp-622-juta-per-tahun (Indonesian).
OECD. Exchange rates (indicator). 2022 [accessed 29 June 2022]; Available from: https://data.oecd.org/conversion/exchange-rates.htm.
Pompele S, Ghetta V, Veronese S, et al. Spirituality and Children’s Coping with Representation of Death During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Qualitative Research with Parents. Pastoral Psychology. 2022.
Yusuf AA, Shidiq AR, Hariyadi H. On Socio-Economic Predictors of Religious Intolerance: Evidence from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Survey in the Largest Muslim Democracy. Religions. 2020; 11 (1): 21.
Friedman MM. Family Nursing: Research, Theory & Practice. Stamford, Conn: Appleton & Lange; 1998.
Husni H, Bisri H, Tantowie TA, et al. Religious Community Responses to COVID19: Case Study on Muslim Small Community. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 2020; 24 (8): 10439-10446.
Suryakusuma J, Uswatul C, Nugraha K, et al. Ibuisme negara: konstruksi sosial keperempuanan Orde Baru = State ibuism : the social construction of womanhood in New Order, Indonesia. Depok: Komunitas Bambu 2011 (in Indonesian).
Satrianingrum AP,Setyawati FA. Perbedaan Pola Pengasuhan Orang Tua Pada Anak Usia Dini Ditinjau Dari Berbagai Suku di Indonesia: Kajian Literatur. Jurnal Ilmiah Visi. 2021; 16 (1): 25-34 (in Indonesia).
A Roshita, E Schubert, M Whittaker. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment. Matern Child Nutr. 2012; 8 (3): 299-314.
Nur A, Mohammad M, Prasetyo AT, et al. Developing Religious Culture through Integrative Religious Practice in Indonesian State Islamic University. El Harakah. 2020; 22 (1): 117-132.
Miftahul A. Aqidah values in syi’iran of “Jamaah Shalawat Nariyah Walisongo” in Moncek Timur village Lenteng Sumenep. [Undergraduate. thesis]. Semarang: State Islamic University (UIN) Walisongo Semarang; 2015.
Kusuma FR,Fuad N. Islamic Religious Coping, Partner Support and Parenting Stress On Mothers Who Accompany Their Children Study From Home in a Covid-19 Pandemic Situation. Psikis: Jurnal Psikologi Islami. 2021; 7 (1): 45-61.
Dolot A. The characteristics of Generation Z. e-mentor; 2018 [accessed 3 March 2022]; Available from: http://www.e-mentor.edu.pl/artykul/index/numer/74/id/1351.
East ML,Havard BC. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System. JMIR mental health. 2015; 2 (1): e10.
Materia FT, Faasse K, Smyth JM. Understanding and Preventing Health Concerns About Emerging Mobile Health Technologies. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2020; 8 (5): e14375.
Singh AV,Balachandran P. Health Literacy and Public Awareness and Its Effect on COVID-19 Prevention: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2021; 50 (Supplement_1): i217.