• Ardiyanto Ardiyanto Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Emma Rosalina Ambarwati Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



COVID-19, university students, safeguards, efforts, attitude


A swiss cheese model-based survey was conducted to investigate the Indonesian students' efforts and attitude in following health protocols to minimize the spread of the COVID-19. The model was developed based on guidance related to student personal safeguards against COVID-19. The personal safeguards were distinguished into an individual (i.e., the use of face masks, physical distancing efforts, hand hygiene, immunity-boosting attempts, and vaccines) and shared (i.e., attitude towards COVID-19 and respiratory etiquette practices) layer of defenses. The survey was then administered to 232 Indonesian university students. The results indicated that the majority (>50%) were always wearing masks, wearing adequate masks, wearing fitted masks, and wearing masks properly. On the other hand, many participants (40-75%) reported not complying with the required hand hygiene standards, including washing hands in less than 20 seconds, and frequently touching the donned masks. Regarding immunity-boosting attempts, a third of the participants reported not exercising regularly. Also, about 10% of the participants were neutral or disagreed with staying at home when having close contacts or having the COVID-19 symptoms. Furthermore, some efforts and attitudes towards most safeguards were significantly different across the gender. In conclusion, most Indonesian student participants had adequate compliance regarding many safety measures regarding COVID-19 prevention, although several aspects such as hand hygiene and immunity-boosting attempts could still be improved.


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