• Thivya Dass Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, Putra Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Lalita Ambigai Sivasamugham Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, Putra Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Geetha Subramaniam Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, Putra Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  • Ling Shing Wong Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, Putra Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia



Covid-19 vaccines, 5C Model, Vaccine Hesitancy, Parents


Vaccine hesitancy (VH) among parents has existed even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The fast-tracked COVID-19 vaccine development has accentuated vaccine hesitancy among parents globally. This study aimed to discover the factors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Malaysian parents with children aged 17 and below using the 5C model proffered by WHO. A quantitative, cross-sectional online survey was conducted using questions adapted from previous studies. The data obtained were analysed using the SmartPLS (Version 3.3.3) software which generated the measurement and the structural models. There was a strong positive relationship between complacency, confidence, and constraints and vaccine hesitancy (VH) with the t and p values being t=3.454; p=0.001 for complacency, t=8.556; p=0.000 for confidence and constraints t=3.117; p=0.002. Calculation and collective responsibility had no strong positive relationship towards VH based on the respective t and the p values. These findings show that the respondents displayed VH towards COVID-19 vaccines as they have low awareness about the benefits of vaccination, lack of trust in healthcare professionals, and unwillingness to travel or wait for the COVID-19 vaccines apart from being concerned about the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines. Although there are limitations to this study, vaccine hesitancy among parents remains to be a concern in Malaysia due to the severity of COVID-19 among children. The findings in this study are in consensus that more efforts must be taken by the Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) and other related stakeholders to increase the level of vaccine acceptance towards the COVID-19 vaccines in children in Malaysia.


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How to Cite

Thivya Dass, Sivasamugham, L. A., Subramaniam, G., & Wong, L. S. (2022). DISCOVERING THE FACTORS OF COVID-19 VACCINE HESITANCY AMONG MALAYSIAN PARENTS USING THE 5C MODEL. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 22(2), 50–60.