EMPATHY AND COMPETENCY AS PREDICTORS OF NURSES' JOB PERFORMANCE: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIAN PUBLIC HOSPITALS
Nurses act as customer-contact employees who are responsible for providing round-the-clock service to patients. Their empathy and competency skills have a significant impact on the quality of services provided to patients. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of empathy and competency in determining task performance and contextual performance of public hospital nurses in Malaysia. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from a sample of 354 staff nurses working in Malaysian public hospitals. Hypotheses were tested using the partial least square technique. Findings indicated that empathy has a positive relationship with task performance but not with contextual performance. Competency, however, has a positive relationship with task performance and contextual performance respectively. Empathy and competency are essential elements in predicting both task performance and contextual performance. The findings of this study highlighted the importance of empathy and competency in improving job performance among nurses in Malaysian public hospitals.
Goh CY, Marimuthu M. The path towards healthcare sustainability: the role of organisational commitment. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2016; 224(1): 587-592.
Othman R, Nasurdin AM. Social support and work engagement: a study of Malaysian nurses. J Nurs Manag 2013; 21(8): 1083-1090.
Dousin O, Collins N, Bartram T, Stanton P. The relationship between work‐life balance, the need for achievement, and intention to leave: mixed‐method study. Journal of advanced nursing 2021; 77(3): 1478-1489.
Augustin R. No oversupply, high demand for Malaysian nurses. 2017; Free Malaysia Today, 7.
Rafferty AM, Clarke SP, Coles J, et al. Outcomes of variation in hospital nurse staffing in English hospitals: cross-sectional analysis of survey data and discharge records. Int J Nurs Stud 2007; 44(2): 175-182.
Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O’Neill N, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg 2020; 76(4): 71-76.
The Star, 2020, September 3. Coronavirus: Health Ministry identifies 26 hospitals nationwide to handle suspected cases. [online] Available at: https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2020/01/27/coronavirus-healthministry-identifies-26-hospitals-nationwide-to-handle-cases [Accessed 31 August 2021].
Worldometers. 2021. Malaysia COVID: 1,746,254 Cases and 16,664 Deaths - Worldometer. [online] Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/malaysia/ [Accessed 31 August 2021].
Perry L, Stannard D, Crookes P. Nursing in the best and worst of the time of COVID. Int J Nurs Pract 2020; 26(3): 1-10.
Nasurdin AM, Tan CL, Naseer Khan S. The role of psychological capital on nursing performance in the context of medical tourism in Malaysia. Int J Bus Soc 2018; 19(3): 748-761.
Vioulac C, Aubree C, Massy ZA, et al. (2016). Empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis: a qualitative study. J Adv Nurs 2016; 72(5):1075-1085.
Moudatsou M, Stavropoulou A, Philalithis A, et al. The role of empathy in health and social care professionals. Healthcare 2020; 8: 26-36.
Heeok P, Ja, MK. The Mediating Effect of Spirituality between Nurses’ Empathy and Elderly Care Performance in the Long-Term Care Hospitals. J Korean Academy Community Health Nurses 2020; 31(1): 34-42.
O'Shea K. Staff Development Nursing Secrets. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus 2002.
Canadian Nurses Association. 2000. Joint position statement: Promoting continuing competence for registered nurses. [online] Available at: www.cna-nurses. ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publica-tions/PS77_promoting_competence_e. pdf [Accessed 31 August 2021].
Okumura M, Ishigaki T, Mori K, Fujiwara Y. Personality traits affect critical care nursing competence: A multicentre cross-sectional study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing 2022; 68(1):103-128.
Chu CI, Hsu YF. Hospital nurse job attitudes and performance: The impact of employment status. J nurs res 2011; 19(1): 53-60.
Borman WC, Motowidlo SJ. Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Hum. Perform 1997; 10(2): 99-109.
Greenslade JH, Jimmieson NL. Distinguishing between task and contextual performance for nurses: Development of a job performance scale. J Adv Nurs 2007; 58(6): 602-611.
Kuo JC, Cheng JF, Chen YL, et al. An exploration of empathy and correlates among Taiwanese nurses. Jpn J Nurs Sci 2012; 9(2):169-176.
Aw SS, Ilies R, De Pater IE. Dispositional empathy, emotional display authenticity, and employee outcomes. J Appl Psychol 2019; 3(1): 1-12.
Hojat M, Mangione S, Nasca TJ, et al. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: development and preliminary psychometric data. Appl Psychol Meas 2001; 61(2): 349-365.
Reynolds WJ, Scott B. Do nurses and other professional helpers normally display much empathy?. J Adv Nurs 2000; 31(1): 226-234.
Kelley JM, Kraft-Todd G, Schapira L, et al. The influence of the patient-clinician relationship on healthcare outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PloS one 2014; 9(4), 1-13.
Buyuk ET, Selda Rizalar RN, Emine Güdek RN, et al. Evaluation of empathetic skills of nurses working in oncology units in Samsun, Turkey. Int J Caring Sci 2015; 8(1): 131.
Lee S, Jeong J, Kim S. The Mediating Effect of Empathy on the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Practice Performance of Social Work College Students. Nveo-Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils Journal 2021; 8(4): 216-27.
Fukada M. Nursing competency: Definition, structure and development. Yonago Acta Med 2018; 61(1): 1-7.
Rajpal, R. Relationship between teacher competency and job performance: a analysis on technical institutions with reference to work motivation. Int j res sci manag 2016; 4: 12-17.
Loemo K, Admasu B, Mirkuzie W. Determinants of Quality of Work Life among Nurses Working in Hawassa Town Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. Nurs Res Pract 2017; 2(1): 1-12.
Ha NS, Choi J. An analysis of nursing competency affecting on job satisfaction and nursing performance among clinical nurses. J Korean Acad Nurs Admin 2010; 16(3): 286-294.
Tzeng HM. Nurses’ self-assessment of their nursing competencies, job demands and job performance in the Taiwan hospital system. Int J Nurs Stud 2004; 41(5): 487-496.
Dharmanegara IBA, Sitiari NW, Wirayudha IDGN. Job competency and work environment: The effect on job satisfaction and job performance among SME’s worker. Int J Bus Manag Sci 2016; 18(1): 19-26.
Silaban RL, Handaru AW, Saptono A. Effect of Workload, Competency, and Career Development on Employee Performance with Organizational Commitment Intervening Variables. The International Journal of Social Sciences World 2021; 3(1):294-311.
Carré A, Stefaniak N, D'ambrosio F, et al. The Basic Empathy Scale in Adults (BES-A): Factor structure of a revised form. Psychol Assess 2013; 25(3): 679-689.
Meretoja R, Isoaho H, Leino‐Kilpi H. Nurse competence scale: development and psychometric testing. J Adv Nurs 2004; 47: 124-133.
Williams LJ, Anderson SE. Job satisfaction and organisational commitment as predictors of organisational citizenship and in-role behaviors. J Manage 1991; 17(3): 601-617.
Bott JP, Svyantek DJ, Goodman SA, et al. Expanding the performance domain: who says nice guys finish last? Int J Organ Anal 2003; 11(2): 137-152.
Ukandu NE, Ukpere WI. Effects of poor training and development on the work performance of the fast food employees in Cape Town. Mediterr J Soc Sci 2013; 4(14): 571-580.
Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, et al. SEM: An Introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education 2010.
Gold AH, Malhotra A, Segars AH. Knowledge management: An organisational capabilities perspective. J Manag Inf Syst, 2001; 18(1): 185-214.
Kuo JC, Cheng JF, Chen YL, et al. An exploration of empathy and correlates among Taiwanese nurses. Jpn J Nurs Sci 2012; 9: 169-176.
Spiro H. Commentary: the practice of empathy. Acad Med 2009; 84(9): 1177-1179.
Yusof J, Yaacob HF, Rahman SAA. The effects of psychological empowerment on organisational citizenship behaviour among Malaysian nurses. Management Research Spectrum 2019; 9(1): 48-53.
Letvak S, Ruhm CJ, McCoy T. Depression in hospital-employed nurses. Clin Nurse Spec 2012; 26(3): 177-182.
Zaki J. Empathy: a motivated account. Psychol Bull 2014; 140(6): 1608-1647.
Spencer LM, Spencer PSM. Competence at Work models for superior performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons 2018.
Darsana IW, Sudja IN, Yuesti A. The role of work satisfaction mediation in determining competency effects, career development and work stress on nursing performance in applying professional nursing models in the soul hospital Bali province. Int J Sustain High Educ 2019; 2(2): 37-50.
Sekaran U. Research methods for business: A skill-building approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons 2000.