• Ayu A School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
  • Samsudin AR School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
  • Ismail NM School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
  • Isa MN International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur.
Keywords: Oral cleft, second-hand smoke, Kelantan


The prevalence of cleft lip and palate in human is 1 in 500 live births worldwide. Non-syndromic clefts are a complex trait with both genetic and environmental etiology. The aim of the study was to assess the association between maternal exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy and risk of having cleft child. Unmatched case-control study was carried out among Malays in Kelantan. Case and control subjects were defined as mothers of cleft children and mothers of normal children respectively. The cleft children were recruited from the Combined Cleft Clinic at Kata Bharu Dental Clinic. Normal children were selected at Orthodontic Clinic, Kata Bharu. A total of 184 cases and controls with age range from 17 to 50 years were interviewed using the standard craniofacial registration form. Multiple Logistic Regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio of factors associated with non-syndromic oral cleft. Significant factors include history of miscarriage (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 1.05, 11.08) p=0.042; duration of exposure to second-hand smoke for 15-30 minutes (OR: 2.41; 95% CI:1.42, 4.09) p<0.001; duration of exposure> 30 minutes (OR: 5 .16; 95% CI:2.87, 9.28) p<0.001 and occupation of the mother (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.40, 3.64) p<0.001. We concluded that maternal exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy was a significant risk factor for getting a cleft child


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How to Cite
Ayu A, Samsudin AR, Ismail NM, & Isa MN. (2003). EXPOSURE TO SECOND-HAND SMOKE AND THE RISK OF NON-SYNDROMIC ORAL CLEFT AMONG MALAY CHILDREN IN KELANTAN . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 3(2), 41-47. Retrieved from https://mjphm.org/index.php/mjphm/article/view/1307