THE EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON LUNG FUNCTION OF MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

  • Zailina Hashim Environmental & OccupationalHealth Unit, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, UPM
  • Wee Bee Suan Environmental & OccupationalHealth Unit, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, UPM
  • Juliana Jalaludin Environmental & OccupationalHealth Unit, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, UPM
  • Jamal H. Hashim Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, UKM
Keywords: Lung functions, smoking duration, smoking frequency

Abstract

Cross-sectional studies on lung functions of 100 smokers and 100 non-smokers was conducted among a university student population. The objectives of the studies were to determine the correlation between the lung functions with smoking frequency and duration among smokers as well as to compare the lung functions with non-smokers. The smokers' mean age was 20.74 years, their smoking initiation age was 16.18 years, the smoking duration was 4.41 years and the smoking frequency was 8.72 cigarettes per day. Among smokers, significant inverse correlation was shown between FEV1 predicted and the smoking frequency (number of cigarette per day) (r=0.241, p=0.016). Multiple regression confirmed the relationship between FEV1% predicted with respondent's age (p=0.013) and smoking frequency (p=0.002), FVC% predicted with age (p=0.005) and smoking frequency (p=0.009). The FEV1/FVC% predicted was significantly related to phlegm symptoms (p=0.03), while the FEF 25-75% predicted was significantly related to age (p=0.005), height (p=0.043) and smoking duration (p=0.046). The lung functions (FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted ) for smokers were not statistically different from non-smokers. This study showed that the lung functions for the smokers were still quite normal due to their short smoking duration, their low number of cigarette smoked per day and their young age.

References

1. Mc Lemore TL, Adelberg S, Liu MC, et al. Expression of CYPIAI gene in patients with lung cancer: Evidence for cigarette · ·smoke­ induced gene expression in normal lung issue and for altered gene regulation in primary pulmonary carcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82:1333-1339.

2. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco smoking: !ARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic 1isks of chemicals to humans. Volume 38. Lyon, International Agency for research on Cancer, 1986.

3. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of 25 Years of Progress: A report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No (CDC) 89-8411,1989.

4. Ingrebrethsen BJ. Aerosol studies of cigarette smoking. Recent Adv Tobacco Sci 1986;12:54- 142.

5. Murray AB, Hardwick DF, Pirie GE, Fraser BM. Assessing seventy of asthma with wright peak flow meter. Lancet 1977; 1:708.

6. Hetzel MR, Williams JP, Shakespeare RM. Can patients keep their own peak flow records reliably? Lancet 1979; 4:597-599.

7. Abboud S, Bruderman I. Assessment of a new transtelephonic portable spirometer. Thorax 1996; 51: 407-410.

8. Medical Research Council. Questionnaire Of Respiratory Symptoms,1986.

9. American Thoracic Society. Health Effects Of Air Pollution. American Lung Society, New York, 1978;1-25.

10. American Thoracic Society. Lung function testing: selection of reference values and interpretative strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144:1202-1219.

11. Singh R, Singh HJ, Sirisinghe RG. Spirometric studies in Malaysian between I 3 and 69 years of age. Med J Msia 1993; 48(2):175-184.

12. Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD, Holberg CJ, Bnnows B. Changes in the normal maximal expiratory flow volume curve with growth and aging. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;127: 725-734.

13. American Lung Association. Common Lung Hazards, 1998. http://www.lungusa.org/airl envlung:haz.html

14. Richard SL. Pulmonary Function Testing: Fundamentals of Rrespiratory Assessment. 1993;125-136.

15. Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Cline MG, Lebowitz MD. Quantitative relationships between cigarette smoking and ventilatory function. Am Rev RespirDis 1977;115:195-205.

16. Krumholz RA, Hedrick EC. Pulmonary function difference in normal smoking and non smoking, middle aged, white collar workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108; 225-230

17. Lee LY, Morton RF, Hord AH, Frazier DT. Reflex control of breathing following inhalation of cigarette smoke in conscious dogs. J Appl Physiol 1983; 54:562-570.

18. Benhamou S, Hill C, Koscielny S. Tobacco And Lung Cancer Epidemiology: Lung Biology In Health And Disease. Vol. 68. Marcel Dekkel. USA, 1993.

19. Beck GJ, Doyle CA, Schachter EN. Smoking and lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981;123: 149-55.

20. Ashley F, Kannel WB, Surlie PD, Masson R. Pulmonary function: relation to aging, cigarette habit, and mortality. The Framingham Study. Am Intern Med 1975; 82:739-45.

21. Fletcher C, Peto R, Tinker C, Speizer FE. The natural histoi'y of chronic bronchitis and emphysema: An eight year study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in working men in London. Oxford University, 1976.

22. Burrows B, Cline MG, Knudson RJ, Taussig CM, Lebomitz MD. A descriptive analysis of the growth and decline of the FEV1 and FVC. Chest 1983; 83(5):717-724.
Published
2002-09-01
How to Cite
Zailina Hashim, Wee Bee Suan, Juliana Jalaludin, & Jamal H. Hashim. (2002). THE EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON LUNG FUNCTION OF MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 2(2), 81-86. Retrieved from https://mjphm.org/index.php/mjphm/article/view/1251
Section
Articles