• Nordiyanah H. Family Health Officer, State Health Department Terengganu
  • Khatijah A.R. Family Health Officer, State Health Department Terengganu
  • Mohd Aris K. District Medical Officer of Health
  • Mohd Jusoh District Medical Officer of Health
  • Anwa S. District Medical Officer of Health



Adolescent, violence, protective factors, risk factors, family connections, family regulation, religiousity, poverty, bully, school connections


A cross sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of violence among 1 5-year-old adolescents and to identify associated protective or risk factors. The study involved 758 adolescents, 384 males and 374 females in the District of Kuala Terengganu and Besut, Terengganu. About 39.0% of adolescents under study were ever involved in violence. Percentage of girls were slightly higher 19.8% as compared to boys 19.2%. About 30% of the violent adolescents were from Kuala Terengganu and 9.1% from Besut. There was no significant relationship between violence and ethnic groups. Family total income above poverty line was significantly protective towards violent behaviour (p < 0.01, OR 0.61, CJ 0.45 - 0.82). Using univariate analysis, selected parental factors were protective against violence, such as good parental connection (p < 0.01), presence of parental regulation (p < 0.001), religious parents (p < 0.05) and parents who had dinner everyday with adolescents (p < 0.01 OR 0.59, CJ 0.43-0.80). Adolescent who perceived to have interest in learning (p < 0.001, OR 0.32, CJ 0.17- 0.59) were less likely to involve in violence. Adolescent who felt well connected to their school (p < 0.01), and perceived themselves religious (p < 0.001) were more likely to be non-violent. Those who felt satisfied with day to day life were less likely to be involved in violence (p < 0.001, OR 0.52, CJ 0.37 - 0.7 I). On the contrary, adolescents who ever had the feeling to run away from home (p < 0. 00 I), had _3 times risk of violence, ever smoked cigarette had 2.4 times risk (p < 0.001, CJ 1.55 - 3.69) ever been bullied by peers were 2.3 times risk (p < 0.001, CJ 1.46 - 3.60) to violence. Some factors remained significant in multivariate analysis. Such factors were total family income below poverty line (p < 0.001, OR J.82,CJ 1.28-2.59), parental regulation (p < 0.05, OR 0.34,CJ 0.13 - 0.89), had dinner every night and frequently (p < 0.01, OR 0.62,CJ 0.43- 0.89), and adolescents' religiousity (p < 0.05, OR 0.81, CJ 0.66 - 0.98) were protective , whereas ever smoke cigarettes (p < 0.01, OR 2.24,CJ 1.38 - 3.62), being bullied by peers (p < 0.01, OR 2.09,CJ 1.26 - 3.45), and frequently felt depressed previous one year (p < 0.001, OR 3.01,CJ 1.79 - 5.07) were risk factors. The findings of the study will serve as baseline in planning adolescent health programme specifically to prevent violence behaviour from developing right from young, in the home and in the school environment. 


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How to Cite

Nordiyanah H., Khatijah A.R., Mohd Aris K., Mohd Jusoh, & Anwa S. (2002). PROTECTIVE FACTORS RELATED TO VIOLENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN TERENGGANU . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 2(1), 36–41.