ORGANOPHOSPHATE EXPOSURE, ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AND EXPOSURE RISK ASSESSMENT AMONG VEGETABLE FARMERS IN SABAH, MALAYSIA
Keywords:Organophosphate pesticide exposure, associated risk factors, vegetable farmers, exposure risk assessment
Uncontrolled use of pesticides in agriculture may result in increased health risks. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used among vegetable farmers to control pests and increase productivity. The aim is to determine the organophosphate exposure, associated risk factors, and exposure risk assessment among vegetable farmers in Sabah. A cross-sectional study design in Kundasang, Sabah, Malaysia. We took a blood sample from participants for blood cholinesterase concentration measurements of pesticide exposure using the rapid test kit model Lovibond AF267. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the associated risk factors of vegetable farmers. The Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, Risk Control (HIRARC) guidelines were used for exposure risk assessment of OP exposure. The response rate was 91.1%. About 23.3% (38 out of 163) have abnormal blood cholinesterase. The significant associated risk factors were age [aOR=1.07, 95%CI (1.02,1.13)], Body Mass Index [aOR=8.60, 95%CI (2.80,26.51)], frequency of exposure a month [aOR=5.99, 95%CI (1.29,27.76)], had not attended pesticide safety training [aOR=9.08, 95%CI (2.97,27.74)], no designated pesticide storage [aOR=6.92, 95%CI (1.70,28.25)] and low practices scores on pesticide handling [aOR=6.01, 95%CI (1.97,18.36)]. The exposure risk assessment level for vegetable farmers was at low-medium risk. Organophosphate exposure among the vegetable farmers in Kundasang was higher than in other settings. The risk factors associated with organophosphate exposure were related to inadequate compliance to the standard occupational safety and health practices in agriculture. Exposure assessment revealed the opportunity for improvement by implementing the recommended control measures. Vegetable farmers need continuous support from relevant authorities. Further research is required to understand better the health risks among vegetable smallholder farmers in Sabah.
Department of Statistic Malaysia, Official Portal. Selected Agricultural Indicators, Malaysia, 2019. Released Date: 29. November 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=72&bul_id=SEUxMEE3VFdBcDJhdUhPZVUxa2pKdz09&menu_id=Z0VTZGU1UHBUT1VJMFlpaXRRR0xpdz09
Mengistie, B.T., Mol, A.P.J. & Oosterveer, P. Pesticide use practices among smallholder vegetable farmers in Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. Environ Dev Sustain. 2017;19:301–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-015-9728-9
Casey Ng. What it means to be a farming smallholder in Malaysia. Smallholder in Malaysia. UTAR Ag Science J. 2017;2:1.
Butler-Dawson, Jaime Lorin. Pesticide exposure, risk factors, and neurobehavioral performance among vulnerable populations. Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17077/etd.zy9vzpdh.
Mustapha F.A. Jallow, Dawood G.Awadh, Mohammed S.Albaho, Vimala Y.Dewi, Binson M.Thomas. Pesticide knowledge and safety practices among farmworkers in Kuwait: Results of a survey. Int J Environ Res Pub Health. 2017;14(4):340. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14040340.
Alavanja MC. Introduction: pesticides use and exposure are extensive worldwide. Rev Environ Health. 2009;24(4):303-309. doi:10.1515/reveh.2009.24.4.303
Rajasuriar R, Awang R, Hashim SB, Rahmat HR. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26(2):73-81. DOI: 10.1177/0960327107071857. PMID: 17370864.
Krejcie RV, Morgan DW. Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1970;30(3):607-610. doi:10.1177/001316447003000308
World Health Organization, Geneva, 1967. World Health Organization Technical Series No. 356, Safe Use Pesticide in Public Health, Sixteenth Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides.
The PIPAH Study, The Prospective Investigation of Pesticide Applicators' Health Study. 2017. Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL Boxton).
Sa’ed H. Zyoud, Ansam F. Sawalha, Waleed M. Sweileh, Rahmat Awang, Suleiman I. Al-Khalil, Samah W. Al-Jabi, Nihaia B. Bsharat. Knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farmworkers in the West Bank, Palestine: safety implications. Environ Health Prev Med. 2010;15:252-261. DOI 10.1007/s12199-010-0136-3.
Kamsia, Shahida, Celestina, Suriani, Norlita, & Khadizah. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pesticide use among oil palm smallholders in Sandakan, Sabah. IOSR J Agric Vet Science. 2014;7:18-20. DOI:10.9790/2380-071121820
Yassin MM, Abu Mourad TA, Safi JM. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farmworkers in the Gaza Strip. Occ Environ Med. 2002;59:387-393.
Guidelines for Hazards Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control (HIRARC). Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). The Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. 2008; JKKP DP 127/789/4-47. ISBN 978-983-2014-62-1.
Sulaiman, Shameer Khan Bin; Ibrahim, Yusoff; Jeffree, Mohammad Saffree. Evaluating the perception of farmers towards pesticides and the health effect of pesticides: A cross-sectional study in the oil palm plantations of Papar, Malaysia. Interdisciplinary toxicology, 2019; 12(1): 15.
Norsyazwani Mohammad, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Nor 'Aqilah Amani Zainal Mubarik, Vivien How, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Zailina Hashim. Blood cholinesterase level and its association with neurobehavioral performance due to insecticide exposure among male cocoa farmers in Pahang and Perak, Malaysia. Asian J Agri Biol. 2018; Special Issue:29-41.
Rozita Hod, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Nazarudin Safian and Mohd Hasni Jaafar. Chlorpyrifos blood level and exposure symptoms among paddy farmers in Sabak Bernam, Malaysia. Int J Pub Health Res. 2011;1(1):1-6.
Andrea Guytingco, Phayong Thepaksorn & Richard L. Neitzel. Prevalence of abnormal serum cholinesterase and associated symptoms from pesticide exposure among agricultural workers in the south of Thailand. J Agromed. 2018;23(3):270-278, DOI: 10.1080/1059924X.2018.1470049
Syahidatul, Nur Jambari, Aqilah Izzah, Nurul Samad, Abdul Anua, Siti Marwanis Ruslan, Rumaizah. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on pesticide exposure among farmers knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on pesticide exposure among farmers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Malay J Med Health Sciences. 2020;2636-9346.
Ayuk B.Tambe, Baleba M.R. Mbanga, Dapi L. Nzefa, Media G Nama. Pesticide usage and occupational hazards among farmers working in small-scale tomato farms in Cameroon. J Egypt Pub Health Assoc. 2019;94:20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42506-019-0021-x.
H. Vivien, Z. Hashim, P. Ismail, et al., Biological monitoring of genotoxicity to organophosphate pesticide exposure among rice farmers: exposure-effect continuum study. J Occ Health Epid. 2013;2(1):27– 36.
Miswon, Nurul & Hashim, Zailina & How, Vivien & Chokeli, Raihanah. Blood cholinesterase level and learning ability of primary school children in an agricultural village, Tanjung Karang, Malaysia. J Advances Med Medical Res. 2015;8(1):52-60. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2015/16804.
Kapeleka, Jones A, Sauli, Elingarami, Sadik, Omowunmi, Ndakidemi, Patrick A.,. Biomonitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity among smallholder horticultural farmers occupationally exposed to mixtures of pesticides in Tanzania. J Environ Pub Health 2019 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3084501
Damalas CA, Koutroubas SD. Farmers' exposure to pesticides: toxicity types and ways of prevention. Toxics. 2016;4(1):1. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010001
Johnstone, Kelly Rose. Organophosphate exposure in Australian agricultural workers: human exposure and risk assessment (2006). Ph.D. thesis, Queensland University of Technology.
Kim Ji-hyun, Kim Jaeyoung, Cha Eun Shil, Ko, Yousun, Kim Doo Hwan. Work-related risk factors by severity for acute pesticide poisoning among male farmers in South Korea. Int J Environ Res Pub Health. 2013;10:1100-1112.
Anamai Thetkathuek, Pornthip Yenjai, Wanlop Jaidee, Patchana Jaidee & Poonsak Sriprapat. Pesticide exposure and cholinesterase levels in migrant farmworkers in Thailand. J Agromed. 2017;22(2):118-130. DOI: 10.1080/1059924X.2017.1283276
Muhammad Izzat Othman, Zailina Hashim. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurobehavioral performance among paddy farmers in Tanjung Karang, Selangor. Asia Pacific Environ Occ Health J. 2018;4:235 – 42.
Lekei, E.E., Ngowi, A.V. & London, L. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania. BMC Pub Health. 2014;14:389. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-389
Manyilizu WB, Mdegela RH, Helleve A, Skjerve E, Kazwala R, Nonga H, Muller M, Elisabeth L, Lyche LJ, et al. Self-reported symptoms and pesticide use among farmworkers in Arusha, Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. 2017 MPDI. DOI: 10.3390/toxics5040024
Zhang, X., Zhao, W., Jing, R. et al. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Pub Health. 2011;11:429. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-429
Jacqueline Cotton, John Edwards, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Susan Brumby, 2018. Cholinesterase research outreach project (CROP): point of care cholinesterase measurement in an Australian agricultural community. Environ Health. 2018;17:31 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-018-0374-1.
Dinesh Neupane, Erik Jors, Lars Brandt, 2014. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2014;13:98 DOI: 10.1186/1