HOUSEHOLDS’ HEALTH EXPENDITURES ON ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN MALAYSIA

  • Nur Nabila Jusoh Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan Malaysia
  • Surianti Sukeri Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
  • Hui Yee Chee Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Malina Osman Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Norashiqin Misni Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Nur Raihana Ithnin Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Asma Ali Department of Food Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Christie Pei-Yee Chin Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88300 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, households’ health expenditures, economic burden, productivity loss, cost analysis

Abstract

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) causes significant health and economic burden on society. The aim of this study is to estimate households’ direct and indirect expenditures on AGE and its predicted factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2019 and March 2020 using a bilingual proforma distributed using Survey Monkey among individuals with self-reported AGE in all 14 states of Malaysia. The finding revealed the average expenditure for a single episode of AGE was RM395.58 (± SD 798.02). The mean indirect expenditure was higher at RM259.14 (± SD 379.92) vs. direct expenditure of RM136.44 (± SD 596.47). The highest expenditure was seen among those who obtained inpatient care. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that household income (RM0.13; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27; p=0.043) and type of healthcare facility (private vs government) (RM1842.05; 95% CI: 395.13, 3288.98; p=0.014) had a significant association with households’ total health expenditure on AGE. Acute gastroenteritis incurred substantial costs on all affected households regardless of care-seeking modalities. Interestingly, the main economic burden of AGE was the indirect cost of productivity loss; interpreted in terms of days away from work. In conclusion, AGE instigated an economic burden on both households and employers. The household income and type of facility were found to be significant factors associated with the households’ health expenditures due to AGE. This study recommends food safety awareness among the public and enforcement of safe food handling practices among food vendors and industries.

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Published
2021-08-28
How to Cite
Jusoh, N. N., Sukeri, S., Chee , H. Y., Malina Osman, Misni, N., Nur Raihana Ithnin, Asma Ali, & Chin, C. P.-Y. (2021). HOUSEHOLDS’ HEALTH EXPENDITURES ON ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN MALAYSIA . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(2), 285-293. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.2/art.1008