• Akmal Wani Sulong Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Azmi Hassan Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia.




Safety and health practice, Supervisory enforcement, Injury reporting, Reliability, Validity, Oil palm labours


This paper analyses the construct validity and reliability of a new developed questionnaire measuring the effects of the occupational safety practice and supervisory enforcement on the safety and health reporting among the oil palm labours. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to determine the underlying dimensions between variables and refine the proposed theory. The EFA was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS. The questionnaire for all constructs was designed by adopting and customizing questionnaires from previous studies and reviewed by the language, content and statistical experts before it was administered on 100 oil palm Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) labours. All of the variables passed the Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (p-value < 0.05) and the measure of sampling adequacy using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO > 0.60). The Cronbach’s Alpha value for the occupational safety practices for Organizational Safety Support (OSS), Safety Knowledge and Emergency Trainings (SKET), Compliance to Safety and Health Regulations (CSHR), and the Safety Procedures and Risk Management (SPRM) components were 0.957, 0.957, 0.940 and 0.936 respectively. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the supervisory enforcement construct was 0.930, while the value for safety reporting was 0.976 for component 1 and 0.936 for component 2. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires to assess the effect of occupational safety practice and the supervisory enforcement on the safety and health reporting among the Malaysian oil palm labours is confirmed.


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How to Cite

Akmal Wani Sulong, & Azmi Hassan. (2020). EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY PRACTICE AND SUPERVISORY ENFORCEMENT ON THE SAFETY REPORTING: EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(3), 57–66. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.20/no.3/art.807