ASSESSMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOCS) IN MULTI-STOREY SHOPPING MALL IN MALACCA MALAYSIA
This study investigates the mall's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to compare changes in levels of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) concentration in the morning and evening. It also explores the sources of emission released that could be related to occupants' health status (dizziness, headaches, flu, running nose, nose stuffy, nose irritation, eye irritation, watery eye, and eye reddening). A questionnaire survey approach was used to collect quantitative data involving 32 workers from malls in Malacca, Malaysia. This study established models to measure changes in VOCs level in two different sessions for a given area. Also, predictors related to the work context (human performance and condition) were found to be significantly related to occupants' symptoms. Two significant values identified the changes in VOCs concentration for morning and evening sessions in the lobby, bakery, eye ware shop, mobile centers, and supermarket. No evidence supports the exposure towards the personal individual in the present findings. This study contributes to the literature on levels of VOCs in the shopping mall as well as the emission sources. It also suggests that more comprehensive monitoring can be achieved, particularly in the context of Malaysia.
2. Turunen M, Toyinbo O, Putus T, et al. Indoor Environmental Quality in School Buildings, and The Health and Wellbeing of Students, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2014; vol. 217, pp. 733-9.
3. Amodio M, Dambruoso PR, De Gennaro G, et al. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Assessment In A Multi-Storey Shopping Mall By High Spatial Resolution Monitoring Of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), Environment Science and Pollution Research International, 2014; 21(23), pp. 13186-13195.
4. Tang J, Chan CY, Wang X, et al. Volatile Organic Compounds In A Multi-Storey Shopping Mall In Guangzhou, South China, Atmospheric Environment, 2005;39, pp. 7374-7383.
5. Hasan NH, Said MRS, Leman AM. Health effect from Volatile Organic Compounds and Useful Tools for Future Prevention A Review, International Journal of Environmental Engineering Science and Technology Research, 2013; vol. 1, pp. 28-36.
6. Dias PL, Raimondo D, Corgnati SP, et al. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in Portuguese Secondary Classrooms: Methodology and Results, Building and Environment, 2014; vol. 81, pp. 69-80
7. Senitkova I. Impact of Indoor Surface Material On Perceived Air Quality, Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, 2014; 36, pp. 1-6.
8. Canha N, Almeida SM, Freitas MDC, et al. Particulate Matter Analysis In Indoor Environments Of Urban And Rural Primary Schools Using Passive Sampling Methodology, Atmospheric Environment, 2014; vol. 83, pp. 21-34.
9. Frontczak M, Andersen RV, Wargocki P. Questionnaire Survey on Factors Influencing Comfort With Indoor Environmental Quality in Danish Housing, Building and Environment, 2012; vol. 50, pp. 56-64.
10. Ng LC, Musser A, Persily AK , et al. Indoor Air Quality Analyses of Commercial Reference Buildings, Building and Environment, 2012; vol. 58, pp. 179-187.
11. Dutton SM & Fisk WJ. Energy and Indoor Air Quality Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Offices, Building and Environment, 2014; vol. 82, pp. 121-127.
12. Fabi V, Andersen RV, Corgnati S, et al. Occupants' Window Opening Behaviour: A Literature Review of Factors Influencing Occupant Behavior and Models, Building and Environment, 2012; vol. 58, pp. 188-198
13. Hedge A, Erickson WA, Rubin G. Predicting Sick Building Syndrome at the Individual and Aggregate Levels, Pergamon, 1996; vol. 22, pp. 3-19.
14. Lin LY, Chuang HC, Liu IJ, et al. Reducing Indoor Air Pollution by Air Conditioning is Associated With Improvements in Cardiovascular Health Among The General Population, Science of the Total Environment, 2013; vol. 463-464, pp. 176-181.
15. Almeida-Silva M, Wolterbeek HT, Almeida SM. Elderly Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants, Atmospheric Environment, 2014; vol. 85, pp. 54-63.
16. Uhde E & Salthammer T. Impact of Reaction Products from Building Materials and Furnishings on Indoor Air Quality—A Review of Recent Advances In Indoor Chemistry, Atmospheric Environment, 2007; vol. 41, pp. 3111-3128.
17. Bourdin D, Mocho P, et al. Formaldehyde Emission Behavior of Building Materials: On-Site Measurements and Modeling Approach To Predict Indoor Air Pollution, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2014; vol. 280, pp. 164-173.
18. Sekaran U. Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach, 3rd ed. 2000 New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
19. Meciarova L, Vilcekova S, Burdova EK, et al. Factors affecting the total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC) Concentrations in Slovak Households, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2017; 14, 1443-1469.