• Muzahem Mohammed Al-Hashimi Department of Statistics and Informatics, College of Computer science & Mathematics, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
Keywords: Coldspots, Spatial outliers, Spatial variation


Prostate cancer incidence rates have evidenced a substantial increase in Iraq over the past sixteen years. Geographic variation of prostate cancer in Iraq has not been explored. We examine the geographic incidence patterns of prostate cancer in Iraq using the global index of spatial autocorrelation, Getis-Ord Gi* and Anselin Local Moran’s  to detect hotspots, coldspots, and spatial outliers of prostate cancer rates. We calculated the age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) according to district level for three periods (2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2015). Disease maps were produced to explore whether prostate cancer incidence clusters by district, and where hotspots and coldspots occur. Results highlight several districts of Iraq where the burden of prostate cancer incidence is especially high. In 2005-2009, the spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed a prostate cancer incidence hotspot in Al-Rissafa, Al-Manathera, Al-Kufa, Al-Hilla, Al-Hindiya, and Kerbela district. In 2010-2015, hotspots were seen in Al-Mussyab, Al-Hilla, Al-Hindiya, Al-Rissafa, Al-Adhamiya, Al-Sadir, and Daquq district. Examining spatial pattern of prostate cancer AAIRs is critical to government efforts to focus on those regions, and to understanding and targeting prostate cancer


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How to Cite
Mohammed Al-Hashimi, M. (2021). SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER INCIDENCE IN IRAQ DURING 2000-2015. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(1), 72-80.