FOOD INSECURITY SITUATION IN MALAYSIA: FINDINGS FROM MALAYSIAN ADULT NUTRITION SURVEY (MANS) 2014
Food insecurity affects food intake, and it could prevent an individual from consuming enough nutritious food to support and maintain health. The aim of this paper is to determine the prevalence and factors influencing food insecurity among Malaysian households. In 2014, the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out, and one of the components measured was food insecurity. Six out of sixteen questions from the food security core-module questionnaire were adopted and answered by 2962 adults. The results showed that about 25.0% adult experienced food quantity insufficiency, 25.5% had food variety insufficiency, 21.9% practised reduced size of the meal, and 15.2% skipped main meal due to lack of money to spend on. For the parents, 23.7% only rely on cheap food to feed children, and 20.8% could not afford to purchase various foods to feed their children. Location, strata, race, level of education, working status and household income shows significant difference while none of the nutritional status components found to be difference in all six parameters of food insecurity measured. Logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios discovered race, education level and household income were related to risk to all six parameters of food insecurity. In conclusion, food insecurity can be a serious problem in Malaysia. An effective and comprehensive effort by the government in terms of policy solution is required to increase education level and ensure an adequate income for every household. Therefore, future research should focus on some of those promising policy solutions and at the same time, study the other possible underlying factors that may lead to food insecurity.
2. Coleman-Jensen A, Gregory C, Singh A. Household food security in the United States in 2013. USDA-ERS Economic Research Report. 2014; (173).
3. Zezza A, Tasciotti L. Urban agriculture, poverty, and food security: Empirical evidence from a sample of developing countries. Food Policy. 2010;35(4):265-73.
4. Decancq K, Goedemé T, Van den Bosch K, et al. The evolution of poverty in the European Union: concepts, measurement and data. ImPRovE Methodological Paper. 2013;13(01):1-42.
5. Ahmad N. The role of government in poverty reduction. Proceeding of the National Seminar on Poverty Eradication through Empowerment. 2005. Kuala Lumpur.
6. North I. Food insecurity in Canadian households. Health Reports. 2001;12(4):11.
7. Casey PH, Simpson PM, Gossett JM, et al. The association of child and household food insecurity with childhood overweight status. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):1406-13.
8. Eisenmann JC, Gundersen C, Lohman BJ, et al. Is food insecurity related to overweight and obesity in children and adolescents? A summary of studies, 1995–2009. Obes Rev. 2011;12(5):73-83.
9. Martin KS, Ferris AM. Food insecurity and gender are risk factors for obesity. J Nutr Eduv Behav. 2007;39(1):31-6.
10. Shariff ZM, Lin, K.G. Indicators and nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among a sample of rural Malaysian women. J Nutr. 2004;30:50-5.
11. Shariff ZM, Khor GL. Obesity and household food insecurity: evidence from a sample of rural households in Malaysia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(9):1049-58.
12. Mok TY, Gan C, Sanyal A. The determinants of urban household poverty in Malaysia. J Soc Sci. 2007;3(4):190-6.
13. Mohamadpour M, Sharif ZM, Keysami MA. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia. J Health, Popul Nutr. 2012;30(3):291-302.
14. Institute for Public Health (IPH). National Health and Morbidity Survey 2014: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey. Vol. 1: Methodology and General Findings: 108 pages
15. United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. "US household food security survey module: Six-item short form." 2012.
16. World Health Organization (1998) Obesity: Preventing Managing the Global Epidemic. Report on a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva, 3–5 June, 1997. WHO/NUT/NCD/98.1. Geneva: WHO.
17. World Health Organization. "International Association for the Study of Obesity, International Obesity Taskforce." The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. 2000; 15-21.
18. Azli B, Mohamad Hasnan A, Nor Azian MZ, et al. "Changes in Nutritional Status Among Malaysian Adults Population From 2003 TO 2014." Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2017;48(3):682-9.
19. Sorsdahl K, Slopen N, Siefert K, et al. Household food insufficiency and mental health in South Africa. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(5):426-31.
20. Kirkpatrick SI, Tarasuk V. Food insecurity in Canada: considerations for monitoring. Can J Public Health. 2008;99(4):324-7.
21. Smith LC, El Obeid AE, Jensen HH. The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries. Agr Eco. 2000;22(2):199-215.
22. Kandala NB, Madungu TP, Emina JB, et al. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter? BMC Public Health. 2011; 11(1):261.
23. Hiesmayr M, Schindler K, Pernicka E, et al. "Decreased food intake is a risk factor for mortality in hospitalised patients: The Nutrition Day survey 2006." Clinical nutrition. 2009;28(5):484-91.
24. Belsky DW, Moffitt TE, Arseneault L, et al. Context and sequelae of food insecurity in children's development. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):809-18.
25. Stuff JE, Casey PH, Szeto KL, et al. Household food insecurity is associated with adult health status. J Nutr. 2004;134(9):2330-5.
26. Mello JA, Gans KM, Risica PM, et al. How is food insecurity associated with dietary behaviors? An analysis with low-income, ethnically diverse participants in a nutrition intervention study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(12):1906-11.
27. Loopstra R, Tarasuk V. Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families. The J Nutr. 2013;143(8):1316-23.
28. Kaiser L, Virginia C, Susan A, et al. "Food resource management education with SNAP participation improves food security." Journal of nutrition education and behaviour. 2015;47(4):374-8.