• Masoumeh Imanian Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Siyamak Tahmasebi Department of Preschool Education, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Akbar Biglaryan Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Kianoush Abdi Department of Rehabilitation Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Robab Teymouri Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mansoureh Karimzadeh Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Health and safety, schools, care environment, evaluation


Children are one of the most vulnerable groups in societies and promoting their health and safety in school should be one of the goals of education systems. Evaluating the current status of schools is the first step toward the prevention of crises in schools and coping with them. The present study investigates the health and safety status of non-public primary schools in Tehran. The present cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a statistical population of non-public primary schools in Tehran, including 65 schools that were selected through multistage cluster sampling. The study tool was the School-Age Care Environment Rating Scale (SACERS), which was completed by the researcher upon observing the current status of schools, and a statistical analysis was then carried out in SPSS-23 using deductive analysis with the single-sample t-test and the cumulative percentage analysis. The results obtained showed that the schools met the required standards in indicators including health policies, safety policies, emergency conditions and personal hygiene; however, they lacked these standards in indicators including health measures, safety measures, attendance, departure and meals/snacks. In general, there was a significant difference between the mean health and safety indices in the schools and the required standards (t=-8.19, P<0.001), and the schools did not meet the required health and safety standards in view of the size of the mean difference. Regarding the role of supervisory authorities and attitudes of staff and parents related to educational environment, it seems that schools need to improve and resolve their deficiencies in various dimensions of health and safety in order to be ready to deal with emergencies. Assessments can be carried out in schools in the form of periodical self-evaluations to improve their performance. In this process, the school environment provides a safer and more enjoyable way for children to learn and create a sense of belonging to the school.


1. Seyed Azizollah Tehrani M. The Effectiveness of Storytelling in Promoting Self-Behavior-based Social Skills in Elementary School Fourth Grade Female Students in Tehran, 2009-2010. Faculty of Education and Psychology, Allameh Tabataba'i University 2010.

2. Taras H, Potts?Datema W. Chronic health conditions and student performance at school. Journal of School Health. 2005;75(7):255-266.

3. Five D, Policy E. Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery. Inter agency Network for Education in Emergencies. 2010.

4. Organization INDM. Tehran Safe and Ready Schools Project: Tehran Education and Training Department of Education Ministry, Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Iran; 2015.

5. (JICA) JICA. Tu¨rkiye’de dog?al afetler konulu u¨lke strateji raporu (Country strategic report on natural disaster in Turkey). Ankara, Temmuz2004.

6. Etzel RA, Balk SJ. Pediatric environmental health: Am Acad Pediatrics; 2011.

7. UNESCO. School safety manual: Tools for teachers. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: UNESCO-IICBA 2017.

8. Ranjbar Vakilabadi D, Tahmasebi R, Kazemi Vakil Abadi T, Mir Ahmadi SR. The study of environmental health and safety of elementary schools in Bushehr city in 2011. 16th National Conference on Environmental Health. Tabriz: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Health Faculty; 2013.

9. Snilstveit B, Stevenson J, Menon R, et al. The impact of education programmes on learning and school participation in low-and middle-income countries. 2016.

10. Click P, Parker J. Caring for school-age children: Nelson Education; 2011.

11. Mudd K, Noone S. Management of severe food allergy in the school setting. The Journal of school nursing: the official publication of the National Association of School Nurses. 1995;11(3):30-32.

12. Powers J, Bergren MD, Finnegan L. Comparison of school food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network’s standard plan. The Journal of School Nursing. 2007;23(5):252-258.

13. Scherer P. The obesity epidemic in children is causing flatfeet. Podiatr Manag. 2009;28(7):159.

14. Shehzad S. Parents’ role in prevention of childhood obesity. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2013;63(7):933.

15. Karimzadeh M, Razzaghiyan Garmroudi Z. Evaluation of educational standards in kindergartens in Karaj. The fourth seminar on education and health of preschool children Iran, Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2016.

16. Maitra A. School accidents to children: time to act. Emergency Medicine Journal. 1997;14(4):240-242.

17. Kumar R, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD. Association between physical environment of secondary schools and student problem behavior: A national study, 2000-2003. Environment and Behavior. 2008;40(4):455-486.

18. Becker JS, Paton D, Johnston DM, Ronan KR. A model of household preparedness for earthquakes: how individuals make meaning of earthquake information and how this influences preparedness. Natural hazards. 2012;64(1):107-137.

19. Becker JS, Johnston DM, Paton D, Ronan K. How people use earthquake information and its influence on household preparedness in New Zealand. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2012;6(6):673.

20. Mehraein nazdik Z, Kazemi M. The study of school preparedness in earthquake(Studying of high school in Shiraz city). Journal of Rescue and Relief. 2016;8(1):91-103.

21. saeedi s, jiba m. Investigation of Environmental Health and Safety Situations in Elementary and Junior High Schools of Izeh, 2017. Beyhagh. 2018;22(4):20-29.

22. Sharifirad G, Amidi Mazaheri M, Akbarzadeh K. Survey of Schools buffets health and effective of education on buffet supervisor in Isfahan. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2004;12(44-45):17-23.

23. Javadiyan Koutnaei M, Yousefi Z, Assadpour S, Assadpour S. Safety status of primary schools in Mazandaran province and comparison with standards. Thirteenth National Conference on Environmental Health. Iran, Kerman: Kerman University of Medical Sciences; 2010.

24. Barjasteh Askari F, Davoudi M, Rezaee Z, Zibaee Z. Comparison of the environmental health and safety status of governmental and non-governmental primary schools in Kashmar in 2015-2016 Journal of Health Chimes. 2017;4(3):38-47.

25. Esmailiy M, Shahi S. Investigating the level of Preparation to encounter the Earth quake in Females’ Secondary Schools of Ilam province, (Dehloran and Moormoori) in (2015-2016). Journal of Tehran Disaster Management and Mitigation Organization (TDMMO). 2017;7(2):58-67.

26. Harms T. School-Age Care Environment Rating Scale:(SACERS): Teachers College Press; 2013.

27. Nations U. UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, report. 2009.

28. Nations T. Terminology on disaster risk reduction from united nations international strategy for disaster reduction. 2009.

29. Ganji M, Shirani Z, Tarahi MJ, Ebrahimi A. An Evaluation of the Environmental Health Status of Girl’s Primary Schools in Khomeyni Shahr, Isfahan, Iran, in 2013. Journal of Health System Research. 2016;12(3):267-271.

30. Sheffield P, Uijttewaal S, Stewart J, Galvez M. Climate Change and Schools: Environmental Hazards and Resiliency. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2017;14(11):1397.

31. Ghorbani K, Binesh Barahmand M, Najafzadeh H, Seddighi A, Hamidi MH, Rahmanzadeh F. Study of Environmental Health Indices in Primary Schools in Rasht, (2006-2011). The 16th National Conference on Environmental Health in Iran. Iran, Tabriz: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2013.

32. Khodayari-Zarnaq R, Sadegh Tabrizi J, Jalilian H, Khezmeh H, Jafari H, Sajadi MK. Assessment of Schools Health Activities and Programs in the Field of Healthy Diet and Nutrition in Tabriz City in 2017. Management Strategies in Health System. 2017;2(3):181-192.




How to Cite

Masoumeh Imanian, Siyamak Tahmasebi, Akbar Biglaryan, Kianoush Abdi, Robab Teymouri, & Mansoureh Karimzadeh. (2019). HEALTH AND SAFETY SITUATION AT NON-PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 19(2), 179–188.