AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR HIV SELF-TEST AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN FROM METRO MANILA, PHILIPPINES

  • Samuel Brando H. Piamonte Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines, 1781; University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, 4031; LoveYourself, Inc., Shaw Boulevard, Mandaluyong City, 1552
  • Rossana A. Ditangco Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines, 1781
Keywords: hiv self-testing, msm, awareness, willingness to pay

Abstract

HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a new innovation in HIV testing where one can conduct an HIV test and interpret results secretly. However, the kit used for HIVST is not yet available in the Philippine market. This formative study aims to identify the awareness of men who have sex with men (MSM) from Metro Manila, Philippines towards HIVST as well as their willingness to pay for a self-test kit. Two-hundred fifty MSM who received a non-reactive HIV screening test result from a community-based voluntary counseling and testing center were recruited. Results indicated that slightly more than half of the respondents (56%) have heard about HIVST, indicating moderate level of awareness among MSM. The social media and the internet were the most prominent source of awareness about it. Frequent testers and being exclusively or more attracted to the same sex are more likely to be aware of HIVST. Median price one is willing to pay is 500 Pesos (roughly 10 US Dollars) and preference for saliva test that blood was reported. Willingness to pay was not related with any personal characteristic. Over-all, results implicate that efforts to inform MSM about HIVST should be initiated to increase awareness. Should it be available, HIVST services can be optimized if done through saliva test and if provided at low price.

References

Department of Health. 2019. HIV/AIDS & ART Registry of the Philippines. Department of Health | Epidemiology Bureau. April 2019. Retrieved from https://www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/statistics/HIV_2019_April.pdf on September 9, 2019.

Department of Health. 2015. Integrated HIV Behavioral & Serologic Surveillance. Retrieved from: https://www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/publications/Philippines_2015_IHBSS_Fact_Sheets_Nov2017_22JUN2016.pdf on September 9, 2019.

Lorenc T, Marrero-Guillamón I, Llewellyn A, et al. HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): systematic review of qualitative evidence. Health Education Research 2011; 26(5):834-846. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyr064.

UNDP. 2017. Missing in Action – Loss of clients from HIV testing, treatment, care and support services: Case studies of gay men and other men who have sex with men in Manila. Bangkok, UNDP. Retrived from: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/philippines/docs/HIV/UNDPPH_Manila_Case%20Studies%20170511.pdf.

World Health Organization. 2014. March 2014 supplement to the 2013 consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection Recommendations for a public health approach. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/arv2013supplement_to_chapter05.pdf.

Zhang C, Li X, Brecht M, & Koniak-Griffin D. Can self-testing increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2017; 12(11): e0188890. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188890.

Pal K, Ngin C, Tuot S, et al. Acceptability Study on HIV Self-testing among Transgender Women, Men who Have Sex with Men, and Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Analysis. PLoS ONE 2016; 11(11): e0166129. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166129

Dean J, Lui C, Mutch A, et al. Knowledge and awareness of HIV Self-testing among Australian gay and bisexual men: a comparison of never, sub-optimal and optimal testers willingness to use. AIDS Care 2019; Feb;31(2):224-229. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1524120.

Yan H, Yang H, Raymond, HF, et al. Experiences and correlates of HIV Self-testing among men who have sex with men in Jiangsu Province, China. AIDS Behav 2015 Mar; 19(3): 485–491. doi: 10.1007/s10461-014-0968-8.

Figueroa C, Johnson C, Verster A, et al. Attitudes and Acceptability on HIV Self-testing Among Key Populations: A Literature Review. AIDS Behav 2015 Nov;19(11):1949-65. doi: 10.1007/s10461-015-1097-8.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. (2014). 90-90-90 An ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

Rhodes SD, McCoy TP, Tanner AE et. al. Using Social Media to Increase HIV Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men, Other Men Who Have Sex With Men, and Transgender Persons: Outcomes From a Randomized Community Trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2016; 62(11): 1450–1453, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw127.

Rosales-Statkus ME, de la Fuente L, Fernández-Balbuena S, et al. Approval and potential use of over-the-counter HIV self-tests: the opinion of participants in a street based HIV rapid testing program in Spain. AIDS Behav 2015 Mar;19(3):472-84. doi: 10.1007/s10461-014-0975-9.

Jennings L, Conserve DF, Merrill J, et al. Perceived Cost Advantages and Disadvantages of Purchasing HIV Self-Testing Kits among Urban Tanzanian Men: An Inductive Content Analysis. J AIDS Clin Res 2017 Aug; 8(8): 725. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000725.

Thirumurthy H, Masters SH, & Agot K. Willingness to Pay for HIV Self-Tests Among Women in Kenya: Implications for Subsidy and Pricing Policies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Jun 1;78(2):e8-e11. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001659.

World Health Organization. 2016. Annex 29: Report on the values and preferences on HIV self-testing in Brazil. Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification: supplement to consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services.

Ng O & Tan M. 2013. HIV Self-Testing: Money Matters. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 57, Issue 5, 1 September 2013, Pages 771–772, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit361.

Indravudh PP, Sibanda, EL, d’Elbe´e M, et al. ‘I will choose when to test, where I want to test’: investigating young people’s preferences for HIV self-testing in Malawi and Zimbabwe. AIDS 2017, 31 (Suppl 3):S203–S212.

Strauss M, George G, Mantell J, et al. Stated and revealed preferences for HIV testing: can oral self-testing help to increase uptake amongst truck drivers in Kenya?. BMC Public Health 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6122-1.

Merchant RC, Clark MA, Liu T, et al. Preferences for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing among social media-using young black, Hispanic, and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM): implications for future interventions. Public Health 2017 Apr; 145:7-19. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2016.12.002. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Published
2020-05-01
How to Cite
Samuel Brando H. Piamonte, & Rossana A. Ditangco. (2020). AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR HIV SELF-TEST AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN FROM METRO MANILA, PHILIPPINES. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(1), 64-70. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.20/no.1/art.260