THE PRESENCE OF RODENTS INFECTED WITH LEPTOSPIRA BACTERIA IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES AND THE LEPTOSPIROSIS POTENTIAL IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

  • Rusyda Ihwani Tantia Nova Postgraduate student, Master of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia, 16424
  • Dewi Susanna Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia, 16424
  • Gita Miranda Warsito Postgraduate student, Joint Master Degree, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia and Curtin University, Depok, Indonesia, 16424
Keywords: Rodents, leptospirosis, Leptospira bacteria, identification, human

Abstract

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by Leptospira bacteria. It is a global public health concern, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this review was to summarize some relevant studies that discuss the presence of rodents and the identification of Leptospira bacteria in rodents. This review also presents findings on the potential reassociation of the presence of rodents with Leptospira bacterial infections to leptospirosis cases in humans. A systematic review methodology used to minimize article selection bias that was likely to occur. During the initial search from three science databases (ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed), 119 articles were retrieved. During the screening process, three articles were excluded due to duplication, 101 articles were excluded based on title and abstract incompatibility with the inclusion criteria, five articles were excluded due to incompatibility of article content with the inclusion criteria, and two articles were excluded because of the ineligibility with the study. In the final screening process, eight articles were chosen to be analyzed. This review found that the presence of rodents infected with Leptospira had the potential to cause leptospirosis in humans through contaminated water and soil or by direct human-to-human contact. The lead factors in the transmission of leptospirosis infection from rodents to humans are activities that take place in wetlands and rice fields, forestry work, and farming activities.

References

World Health Organization. Human Leptospirosis: Guidance for Diagnosis, Surveillance and Control [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. iii. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42667/WHO_CDS_CSR_EPH_2002.23.pdf;jsessionid=409A63D77E5B29922E817B7731BADE27?sequence=1

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leptospirosis Fact Sheet for Clinicians [Internet]. Cdc. 2018. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis/pdf/fs-leptospirosis-clinicians-eng-508.pdf

Pijnacker R, Goris MGA, Te Wierik MJM, Broens EM, van der Giessen JWB, de Rosa M, et al. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014. Euro Surveill [Internet]. 2016 Apr 28 [cited 2019 May 6];21(17):30211. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=22463

Haake, David A and Levett PN. Leptospirosis in Human. Vol. 387, PubMed Central. 2015. 65–97 p.

Perez J, Brescia F, Becam J, Mauron C, Goarant C. Rodent Abundance Dynamics and Leptospirosis Carriage in an Area of Hyper-Endemicity in New Caledonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2011 Oct;5(10):e1361. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1288103698?accountid=17242

Romero-Vivas CME, Cuello-Pérez M, Agudelo-Flórez P, Thiry D, Levett PN, Falconar AKI. Cross-sectional study of Leptospira seroprevalence in humans, rats, mice, and dogs in a main tropical sea-port city. Am J Trop Med Hyg [Internet]. 2013 Jan 9 [cited 2019 May 6];88(1):178–83. Available from: http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0232

Maze MJ, Cash-Goldwasser S, Rubach MP, Biggs HM, Galloway RL, Sharples KJ, et al. Risk factors for human acute leptospirosis in northern Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2018 Jun;12(6). Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/2070854729?accountid=17242

Muñoz-Zanzi C, Mason M, Encina C, Astroza A, Romero A. Leptospira Contamination in Household and Environmental Water in Rural Communities in Southern Chile. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2014 Jun 26 [cited 2019 May 6];11(7):6666–80. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/7/6666

Allwood P, Muñoz-Zanzi C, Chang M, Brown PD. Knowledge, perceptions, and environmental risk factors among Jamaican households with a history of leptospirosis. J Infect Public Health [Internet]. 2014;7(4):314–22. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876034114000458

Cook EAJ, de Glanville WA, Thomas LF, Kariuki S, Bronsvoort BM de C, Fèvre EM. Risk factors for leptospirosis seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. Occup Environ Med [Internet]. 2017 May;74(5):357. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1894826720?accountid=17242

Muñoz-Zanzi C, Mason MR, Encina C, Astroza A, Romero A. Leptospira contamination in household and environmental water in rural communities in southern Chile. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2014;11(7):6666–80. Available from: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84903398872&doi=10.3390%2Fijerph110706666&partnerID=40&md5=6a5714489bf926d2e8f00c4fdd101d32

Prabhakaran SG, Shanmughapriya S, Dhanapaul S, James A, Natarajaseenivasan K. Risk factors associated with rural and urban epidemics of leptospirosis in Tiruchirappalli District of Tamilnadu, India. J Public Health (Bangkok) [Internet]. 2014 Aug;22(4):323–33. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1546078875?accountid=17242

Lau CL, Watson CH, Lowry JH, David MC, Craig SB, Wynwood SJ, et al. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2016 Jan;10(1). Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1764354607?accountid=17242

Lau C, Smythe L, Weinstein P. Leptospirosis: An emerging disease in travellers. Travel Med Infect Dis [Internet]. 2010 Jan;8(1):33–9. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1027115849?accountid=17242

Londe LDR, Da Conceição RS, Bernardes T, Dias MCDA. Flood-related leptospirosis outbreaks in Brazil: perspectives for a joint monitoring by health services and disaster monitoring centers. Nat Hazards [Internet]. 2016 Nov;84(2):1419–35. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1828863084?accountid=17242

Wang H-K, Lee M-H, Chen Y-C, Hsueh P-R, Chang S-C. Factors associated with severity and mortality in patients with confirmed leptospirosis at a regional hospital in northern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect [Internet]. 2018; Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1684118218301610

Allwood P, Muñoz-Zanzi C, Chang M, Brown PD. Knowledge, perceptions, and environmental risk factors among Jamaican households with a history of leptospirosis. J Infect Public Health [Internet]. 2014;7(4):314–22. Available from: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84904049026&doi=10.1016%2Fj.jiph.2014.03.004&partnerID=40&md5=3e1d242a91a8c07b90028d834c5354fc

Mohd Ridzuan J, Aziah BD, Zahiruddin WM. Work Environment-Related Risk Factors for Leptospirosis among Plantation Workers in Tropical Countries: Evidence from Malaysia. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2016 Jul;7(3):156–63.

Costa F, Ribeiro GS, Felzemburgh RDM, Santos N, Reis RB, Santos AC, et al. Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment. Small PLC, editor. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2014 Dec 4 [cited 2019 May 6];8(12):e3338. Available from: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003338

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Altman D, Antes G, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement (Chinese edition). J Chinese Integr Med. 2009;7(9):889–96.

Tennessee Department of Health. Rural Areas [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.tn.gov/health/cedep/environmental/healthy-places/healthy-places/land-use/lu/rural-areas.html

Tennessee Department of Health. Suburban Areas [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.tn.gov/health/cedep/environmental/healthy-places/healthy-places/land-use/lu/suburban-areas.html

Tennessee Department of Health. Urban Areas [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.tn.gov/health/cedep/environmental/healthy-places/healthy-places/land-use/lu/urban-areas.html

Latifah I, Abdul Halim A, Rahmat MS, Nadia MF, Ubil ZE, Asmah H, et al. Isolation by culture and PCR identification of LipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in wild rats of Kuala Lumpur. Malays J Pathol. 2017 Aug;39(2):161–6.

Panti-May JA, De Andrade RRC, Gurubel-González Y, Palomo-Arjona E, Sodá-Tamayo L, Meza-Sulú J, et al. A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by house mouse and black rat populations in Yucatan, Mexico. Epidemiol Infect [Internet]. 2017;145(11):2287–95. Available from: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85021870557&doi=10.1017%2FS0950268817001352&partnerID=40&md5=e301a91ee5581f35d99d492fb5cb2630

Ayral F, Zilber A-L, Bicout DJ, Kodjo A, Artois M, Djelouadji Z. Distribution of Leptospira interrogans by Multispacer Sequence Typing in Urban Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus): A Survey in France in 2011-2013. PLoS One [Internet]. 2015 Oct;10(10). Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1720193585?accountid=17242

Cosson J-F, Picardeau M, Mielcarek M, Tatard C, Chaval Y, Suputtamongkol Y, et al. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2014 Jun;8(6):e2902. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1547568941?accountid=17242

Rahelinirina S, Léon A, Harstskeerl RA, Sertour N, Ahmed A, Raharimanana C, et al. First Isolation and Direct Evidence for the Existence of Large Small-Mammal Reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar. PLoS One [Internet]. 2010 Nov;5(11). Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1292205933?accountid=17242

Denipitiya DTH, Chandrasekharan N V, Abeyewickreme W, Hartskeerl RA, Hapugoda MD. Identification of cattle, buffaloes and rodents as reservoir animals of Leptospira in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. BMC Res Notes [Internet]. 2017;10. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1883238433?accountid=17242

Cortez V, Canal ⨯ Enrique, Dupont-Turkowsky JC, Quevedo T, Albujar C, Ti-Cheng C, et al. Identification of Leptospira and Bartonella among rodents collected across a habitat disturbance gradient along the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru. PLoS One [Internet]. 2018 Oct;13(10). Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/2117502176?accountid=17242

Guernier V, Vaea R, Nhan T, Rouault E, Tessier A, Musso D. Leptospira diversity in animals and humans in Tahiti, French Polynesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2017 Jun;11(6). Available from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1919505321?accountid=17242

Global Invasive Species Database. Species Profile: Mus Musculus. 2015.

Csurhes S. Invasive animal risk assessment: Pacific rat Rattus exulans [Internet]. 2012. Available from: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/%5Cnhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en

Hausser J, de Roguin L. Rattus norvegicus. Säugetiere der Schweiz / Mammifères de la Suisse / Mammiferi della Svizzera. 2013;283–7.

Patton, J.L., Weksler, M., Bonvicino, C.R. & Percequillo A. Oligoryzomys microtis , Small-eared Pygmy Rice Rat Errata version. IUCN Red List Threat Species. 2017;8235:1–8.

Setiawan I. Pemeriksaan Laboratorium Untuk Mendiagnosis Penyakit Leptospirosis. Media Penelit dan Pengemb Kesehat. 2008;18(1):44–52.

Rampengan NH. Leptospirosis. J Biomedik. 2016;8(3):143–50.

Mwachui MA, Crump L, Hartskeerl R, Zinsstag J, Hattendorf J. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2015;9(9). Available from: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84943196151&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003843&partnerID=40&md5=4b4ee214c2a52b4f48b4f87829e9c39b

Meny P, Menéndez C, Ashfield N, Quintero J, Rios C, Iglesias T, et al. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in human groups at risk due to environmental, labor or social conditions. Rev Argent Microbiol [Internet]. 2019; Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0325754119300069

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Petunjuk Teknik Pengendalian Leptospirosis. 2017;126.

Published
2020-10-01
How to Cite
Nova, R. I. T., Dewi Susanna, & Gita Miranda Warsito. (2020). THE PRESENCE OF RODENTS INFECTED WITH LEPTOSPIRA BACTERIA IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES AND THE LEPTOSPIROSIS POTENTIAL IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(2), 185-196. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.20/no.2/art.250