DEPRESSION AMONG OLD ADULTS IN UAE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Authors

  • Preethi Nandagopal College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE
  • Fahad Al-Helli College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE
  • Shreya Nair College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE
  • Ibza Farooq Mohammed College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE
  • Shatha Al-Sharbatti Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman UAE
  • Lujain Muteb Abdulkirem Mushairif Primary Healthcare Center Ajman, UAE.

Keywords:

Depression, Quality of Life, Predictors, Old adults

Abstract

In the UAE, limited data is available on depression among older adults, which is an important public health issue. This is a cross-sectional study that included 410 old adults (60 years and above), both genders, from any nationality, attending healthcare facilities in Ajman, Sharjah, and Centers attached to Civil Society Organizations in Dubai, accepting to sign an Informed consent form. Those who could not communicate were excluded. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used that included two standardized questionnaires: Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (to assess the depressive symptoms) and WHOQoL-BREF (to assess the impact of depression on Quality of Life(QoL) and additional questions that were validated by two psychiatrists. The study approved by Institutional review board, and Ministry of Health and Prevention, UAE, and Civil Society Organisation authorities and official approval from the sites were obtained. SPSS version 29, Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used. Results showed that the prevalence of depression among participants was 39.3% and there were significant associations with: educational level(p<0.001), hypertension(p=0.041), perceived cost of treatment(P<0.009), social support(p<0.001), appetite(p=0.007), smoking(p=0.017), sleep(p=0.018)  and exercise(p<0.001). Depression negatively affects perceived quality of life and health satisfaction(p=0.03). Depression was associated with physical health(p=0.008), psychological(p<0.001), social(p<0.001), and environmental(p=0.037) QoL domains. Level of education(p<0.001), sleep(0.012), exercise(p=0.029), appetite(p=0.025), perceived cost of treatment(P=0.005) were significant predictors of depression. To conclude, the prevalence of depression among old adults in UAE was  high(39.3%). Depression was associated with physical, socio-economic and environmental factors. Depression negatively affects Quality of Life of older adults.

Author Biography

Ibza Farooq Mohammed, College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE

 

 

References

Rajkumar AP, Thangadurai P, Senthilkumar P, Gayathri K, Prince M, Jacob KS. Nature, prevalence and factors associated with depression among the elderly in a rural south Indian community. Int Psychogeriatr [Internet].[cited 2023 Feb 19];21(02):372. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19243657/.

World Health Organization. Depression [Internet]. 2023. [cited 2023Feb19]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/depression#tab=tab_1

Depression and Older Adults [online]. [cited 2022 Jan 18]; Available from: URL:https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/depression-and-older-adults

Barua A, Ghosh MK, Kar N, Basilio MA. Prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly. Ann Saudi Med [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2023 Feb 19];31(6):620–4. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0256-4947.87100

Fiske A, Wetherell JL, Gatz M. Depression in older adults. Annu Rev Clin Psychol [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2023 Feb 19];5(1):363–89. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153621

Bruce DF. Depression in older people: Symptoms, causes, treatments [Internet]. WebMD. WebMD; 2022 [cited 2023Feb19]. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/depression-elderly#1

Zivin K, Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Vijan S, Kabeto MU, Miller EM, et al. Depression among older adults in the United States and England. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2023 Feb 19];18(11):1036–44. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20808088/

Argyropoulos K, Bartsokas C, Argyropoulou A, Gourzis P, Jelastopulu E. Depressive symptoms in late life in urban and semi-urban areas of South-West Greece: An undetected disorder? Indian J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2023 Feb 19];57(3):295–300. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.166617

Djernes JK. Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Internet]. [cited 2023 Feb 19];113(5):372–87. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16603029/

Chen Y, Hicks A, While AE. Quality of life of older people in China: a systematic review. Rev Clin Gerontol [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2023 Feb 19];23(1):88–100. Available from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/reviews-in-clinical-gerontology/article/abs/quality-of-life-of-older-people-in-china-a-systematic-review/FE36367277C310E2732C78907C2AECA7

Nimrod G, Kleiber DA, Berdychevsky L. Leisure in coping with depression [Internet]. ResearchGate. [cited 2023Feb19]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Galit-Nimrod/publication/257931535_Leisure_in_Coping_With_Depression/links/551d31b50cf2a15336261160/Leisure-in-Coping-With-Depression.pdf

Goodwin GM. Depression and associated physical diseases and symptoms. Dialogues Clin Neurosci [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2023 Feb 19];8(2):259–65. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.31887/dcns.2006.8.2/mgoodwin

Chalise HN. Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home) [Internet]. Advances in Aging Research. Scientific Research Publishing; 2014 [cited 2023Feb19];03(01):6–11. Available from: https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=42627

Dasgupta A, Mukhopadhyay M, Das S, Majumdar S, Das A. Are our elderly really depressed?: A cross sectional study on depression among geriatric population in a slum of Kolkata [Internet]. Ijhsr.org. [cited 2023 Feb 19]. Available from: https://www.ijhsr.org/IJHSR_Vol.4_Issue.6_June2014/5.pdf

Chong MY, Tsang HY, Chen CS, Tang TC, Chen CC, Yeh TL, et al. Community study of depression in old age in Taiwan: prevalence, life events and socio-demographic correlates. Br J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2023 Feb 19];178(1):29–35. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11136207/

Ryu SI, Cho B, Chang SJ, Ko H, Yi YM, Noh E-Y, et al. Factors related to self-confidence to live alone in community-dwelling older adults: A cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatr [Internet]. 2021;21(1):291. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02214-w

Hussenoeder FS, Jentzsch D, Matschinger H, Hinz A, Kilian R, Riedel-Heller SG, et al. Depression and quality of life in old age: a closer look. Eur J Ageing [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2023 Feb 19];18(1):75–83. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10433-020-00573-8

Figueira, H.A.; Figueira, O.A.; Figueira, A.A.; Figueira, J.A.; Polo-Ledesma, R.E.; Lyra da Silva, C.R.; Dantas, E.H.M. Impact of Physical Activity on Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Quality of Life of the Older People in Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023;20;1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph20021127

Kim J-I, Choe M-A, Chae YR. Prevalence and predictors of geriatric depression in community-dwelling elderly. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2023 Feb 19];3(3):121–9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25030470/

Zenebe, Y., Akele, B., W/Selassie, M., & Necho, M. Prevalence and determinants of depression among old age: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of General Psychiatry. 2021;20(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-021-00375-x

Roberts RE, Kaplan GA, Shema SJ, Strawbridge WJ. Does growing old increase the risk for depression? [Internet]. The American journal of psychiatry. U.S. National Library of Medicine; [cited 2022Nov3]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9326820/

Mirkena Y, Reta MM, Haile K, Nassir Z, Sisay MM. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among older adults at ambo town, Oromia region, Ethiopia. BMC Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 18;18(1):338. doi: 10.1186/s12888-018-1911-8. PMID: 30336773; PMCID: PMC6194620.

Cheung ESL, Mui AC. Gender variation and late-life depression: Findings from a National Survey in the USA - Ageing International [Internet]. SpringerLink. Springer US; 2021 [cited2022Oct31]. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12126-021-09471-5

Pan L, Li L, Peng H, Fan L, Liao J, Wang M, et al. Association of depressive symptoms with marital status among the middle-aged and elderly in rural China–serial mediating effects of sleep time, Pain and life satisfaction [Internet]. Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier; 2022 [cited 2022Oct31]. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0165032722001288

Zhang Z, Hayward MD. Childlessness and the Psychological Well-Being of Older Persons [Internet]. Academic.oup.com. 2001;56(5):S311-20 [cited 2022Oct31]. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/article/56/5/S311/634257?searchresult=1

Wang, H., Chen, M., Xin, T. et al. Number of children and the prevalence of later-life major depression and insomnia in women and men: findings from a cross-sectional study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. BMC Psychiatry 2020, 29;20(1):267. [cited 2022Oct31]. Available from:

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02681-

Ojagbemi A, Gureje O. Typology of social network structures and late-life depression in low- and middle-income countries [Internet]. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH. U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2019 [cited 2022Dec12]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040469/

Chang-Quan, H., Zheng-Rong, W., Yong-Hong, L., Yi-Zhou, X., & Qing-Xiu, L. Education and risk for late life depression: a meta-analysis of published literature. International journal of psychiatry in medicine. 2010;40(1): 109–124. https://doi.org/10.2190/PM.40.1.i

Liu H, Zhou Z, Fan X, Shen C, Ma Y, Sun H, Xu Z. Association Between Multiple Chronic Conditions and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults in China: Evidence From the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Int J Public Health. 2023 Mar 3;68:1605572. doi: 10.3389/ijph.2023.1605572. PMID: 36938299; PMCID: PMC10020227.

Smit F, Ederveen A, Cuijpers P. Opportunities for Cost-effective Prevention of Late-Life Depression [Internet]. Jama Network. 2006 [cited 2022Dec13]. Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/209369

Cheng X, Cosco TD, Ariyo T. Decreasing social isolation to enhance mental health among older adults in China: A mediation analysis of aging attitude [Internet]. Frontiers. Frontiers; 1AD [cited 2022Nov3]. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.735740/full

Morin RT, Gonzales MM, Bickford D, Catalinotto D, Nelson C, Mackin RS. Impaired financial capacity in late-Life Depression: Revisiting associations with cognitive functioning [Internet]. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS. U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2019 [cited 2022Dec13]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9187218/

Scheufele P, Rappl A, Visser M, Kiesswetter E, Volkert D. Characterisation of community-dwelling older adults with poor appetite. Eur J Nutr. 2023;62(5):1991-2000. doi: 10.1007/s00394-023-03129-5. Epub 2023 Mar 4. PMID: 36869911; PMCID: PMC10349734.

Fluharty M, Taylor AE, Grabski M, Munafò MR. The Association of Cigarette Smoking With Depression and Anxiety: A Systematic Review. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017;19(1):3-13. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw140. Epub 2016 May 19. PMID: 27199385; PMCID: PMC5157710.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5157710/

Jaussent I, Bouyer J, Ancelin ML, Akbaraly T, Pérès K, Ritchie K, Besset A, Dauvilliers Y. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness are risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly. Sleep. 2011;34(8):1103-10. doi: 10.5665/SLEEP.1170. PMID: 21804672; PMCID: PMC3138165.

Klil-Drori S, Klil-Drori AJ, Pira S, Rej S. Exercise Intervention for Late-Life Depression: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2020;81(1):19r12877. doi: 10.4088/JCP.19r12877. PMID: 31967748.Available from: https://www.psychiatrist.com/jcp/depression/exercise-for-late-life-depression/

Sivertsen H, Bjørkløf GH, Engedal K, Selbæk G, Helvik AS. Depression and Quality of Life in Older Persons: A Review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2015;40(5-6):311-39. doi: 10.1159/000437299. Epub 2015 Sep 12. PMID: 26360014. Available from: https://www.karger.com/DOI/10.1159/000437299.

Downloads

Published

2023-12-28

How to Cite

Nandagopal, P., Al-Helli, F., Nair, S., Farooq Mohammed, I., Al-Sharbatti, S., & Muteb Abdulkirem, L. (2023). DEPRESSION AMONG OLD ADULTS IN UAE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 23(3), 216–225. Retrieved from http://mjphm.org/index.php/mjphm/article/view/2418