• Hasanain Faisal Ghazi College of Nursing, Al-Bayan University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mohammed Abdalqader Community Medicine Department, University of Cyberjaya, Malaysia
  • Tiba Nezar Hasan Department of Dentistry, Al-Turath University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Sport supplements, Young athletes, Baghdad


Dietary supplements are used as nutritional boosters. The types that are used for the enhancement of sport-and-athletic routines and to regain strength quickly are known as sports supplements. The main objective of this research is to assess the knowledge and attitude of young athletes in Baghdad city on the use of these sports supplements. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 304 young athletes in Baghdad city using self-administered questionnaires. The participants were selected using non-probability convenience sampling. The mean age of the participants was 26.89 years and the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.12 kg/m2. The most common supplements used were Mass protein (35.9%), followed by Whey protein (29.3%), and creatinine (15.1%). Around two-thirds (75%) of the athletes had previous information regarding sport supplements and the most common source of this information was their personal trainer at the gym (39.8%). Currently, 60.5% of the participants are taking sport supplements. There was a significant association between the knowledge variables (time for taking supplements, reasons for taking supplements, and taking the correct amount) and age (p-value 0.007, 0.005, 0.009), respectively. A majority of the participants, 78.9%, refused to take the forbidden supplements to improve their performance. Thus we can conclude that young athletes have an acceptable level of knowledge regarding sport supplements and a good attitude, especially toward the usage of forbidden supplements. More promotions are needed in Baghdad city, to get young people using gyms to focus on their health.


Dunford M, Doyle JA. Nutrition for sport and exercise. 4th ed.Mason: Cengage Learning; 2018. p. 566.

Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the American dietetic association, dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016;48(3):543–68.

Amy W. Anzilotti, 2019. Sports Supplements. Nemours Teens Health.

Aljaloud, S. O. (2013). Understanding the Behavior and Attitude of Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia toward Dietary Supplements (Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University

Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J, Kopecky L. Nutritional supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14(1):104–20.

Sundgot-Borgen J, Berglund B, Torstveit MK. Nutritional supplements in Norwegian elite athletes - impact of international ranking and advisors. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13(2):138–44.

Nabuco HCG, Rodrigues VB, Barros WM, Ravagnani FCP, Espinosa MM, Ravagnani CFC. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Rev Nutr. 2017;30(2):163–73.

Jovanov, P.; or i´c, V.; Obradovi´c, B.; Barak, O.; Pezo, L.; Mari´c, A.; Sakaˇc, M. Prevalence, knowledge and attitudes towards using sports supplements among young athletes. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2019, 16:27.

Tawfik S, El Koofy N, Moawad EMI. Patterns of nutrition and dietary supplements use in young Egyptian athletes: a community-based cross-sectional survey. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161252-e.

Scofield DE, Unruh S. Dietary supplement use among adolescent athletes in Central Nebraska and their sources of information. J Strength Cond Res.2006;20(2):452–5.

Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J, Kopecky L. Nutritional supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14(1):104–20.

Braun H, Koehler K, Geyer H, Kleiner J, Mester J, Schanzer W. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(1):97–109.

Petróczi A, Naughton DP, Pearce G, Bailey R, Bloodworth A, McNamee M. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008; 5:22.

Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Hayas A. A creatine-protein-carbohydrate supplement enhances responses to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc.2007;39(11):1960–8

Denscombe BJ, Karunaratna M, Cartoon J, Fergie B, Goodman C. Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute. J Sci Med Sport.2010;13(2):274–80.

Nieper A. Nutritional supplement practices in UK junior national track and field athletes. Brs J Sport Med. 2005;39(9):645–9.

Darvishi L, Askari G, Hariri M, et al. The use of nutritional supplements among male collegiate athletes. Int J Prev Med.2013;4(Suppl 1):S68–72.

Wiens K, Erdman KA, Stadnyk M, Parnell JA. Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young Canadian athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab. 2014; 24(6): 613–22.

Slater G, Tan B, Teh KC. Dietary supplementation practices of Singaporean athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.2003;13(3):320–32

Torres-McGehee TM, Pritchett KL, Zippel D, Minton DM, Cellamare A, Sibilia M. Sports nutrition knowledge among collegiate athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and strength and conditioning specialists. J Athl Train.2012;47(2):205–11.

Smith-Rockwell M, Nickols-Richardson SM, Thye FW. Nutrition knowledge, opinions, and practices of coaches and athletic trainers at a division 1 university. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001;11(2):174–85.

How to Cite
Ghazi, H. F., Abdalqader, M., & Hasan, T. N. (2022). KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF YOUNG ATHLETES IN BAGHDAD CITY/IRAQ TOWARD THE USE OF SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 22(3), 153-159.