• Siew Koon Chong Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, 20400, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Madihah Shukri Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Tuan Sharipah Tuan Hadi Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, 20400, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Shaiful Azlan Kassim Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Selangor 40170, Malaysia
  • Nik Adilah Shahein Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Selangor 40170, Malaysia
  • Husni Zaim Ab Latiff Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, 20400, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Ong Wan Xi Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, 20400, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Nurul Fasiha Che Rahim Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Nurul Nabila Tarmizi Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia


post COVID-19; mental health; fear of COVID- 19; quality of life; coping; general population


This study examined the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress among the general population of Malaysia after nationwide lockdown restrictions were lifted, querying if psychosocial factors including quality of life, COVID-19 fears, and coping strategies affected levels of psychological distress beyond sociodemographic predictors. A total of 4,904 (male = 798, female = 4106) Malaysian adults participated in an online survey conducted in August- December 2021, just after the gradual release of lockdown restrictions. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12; quality of life was measured by the WHOQOL-BREF. The Fear of COVID-19 scale and Brief COPE tool measured the level of COVID-19 fear and coping mechanisms, respectively. The prevalence of psychological distress among respondents was 37.6%, 95% confidence interval (36%—39%). Results suggested demographic indicators of higher psychological distress, specifically younger adults, childless adults, and adults with lower income. Prior medical diagnoses and COVID-19-related stressful events increased psychological distress. Results demonstrated an association between lower quality of life across all domains and higher psychological distress. Fear of COVID-19 and avoidant coping amplified distress while problem-focused and emotional coping mechanisms played protective roles. Pronounced and prolonged mental health deterioration was observed after the nationwide lockdown was relaxed; cost-effective interventions are needed to prevent new mental health issues and promote well-being and resilience.


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How to Cite

Chong, S. K., Shukri, M., Tuan Hadi, T. S., Kassim, S. A., Shahein, N. A., Husni Zaim Ab Latiff, … Nurul Nabila Tarmizi. (2023). PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS, COVID-19 FEAR, QUALITY OF LIFE, AND COPING STRATEGIES AMONG GENERAL POPULATION DURING THE POST- LOCKDOWN PERIOD OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN MALAYSIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 23(2), 99–111. Retrieved from