INTERVENTION APPROACHES OF STIGMA RELATED TO TUBERCULOSIS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Considerable efforts and concurrent studies have been made to substantiate the control of tuberculosis (TB). The control was not achieved significantly, as the stigma is one of the significant barriers to controlling tuberculosis. It hampers the TB treatment’s determined targeted completion. However, despite countless measures to improve therapy completion, non-adherence to therapy remains a global issue. This systematic review is aimed at evaluating tuberculosis-related measures to increase adherence to treatment among patients with tuberculosis in developing countries. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Pro-Quest science Direct, Ovid, Spring, Global Health, and Cochrane) covering articles published between 2003 and 2019 was carried out using truncated search words such as “tuberculosis-related stigma,” TB Stigma,” “intervention,” “treatment adherence,” “treatment compliance" and "developing countries." We included information from developing countries addressing the stigma between TB patients and their anti-stigma intervention. Eight hundred sixty-seven articles have been retrieved, 346 have been excluded due to duplication, and 397 other non-relevant articles have been excluded at the title screening stage. Subsequently, after full-text articles were assessed for failing to meet inclusion criteria, 118 articles were excluded, and only six studies remained. The six articles have improved TB treatment outcomes with stigma intervention, including health education and counseling, TB club self-support, and psychological support interventions. Setting, resources and local TB epidemiology may vary in the optimal implementation of stigma interventions.
WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report 2018. France: WHO, 2018.
Andrew C, and Abigail NT. Tuberculosis and Stigmatization: Pathways and Interventions. Public Health Rep v.125(Suppl 4); 2010 PMC2882973. doi: 10.1177/00333549101250S407 PMID: 20626191. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882973.
Corrigan PW, Rao D. On the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness: Stages, Disclosure, and Strategies for Change. Can J Psychiatry 2013;57(8):464-469.https://doi. org/10.1177/070674371205700804
Moya EM, Lusk MW. Tuberculosis stigma and perceptions in the US-Mexico border. Salud Publica Mex. 2013;55 Suppl4:S498-507. https://doi.org/10.21149/ spm. v55s4.5155
Courtwright A, Turner AN. Tuberculosis and Stigmatization: Pathways and Interventions. 2010; 125(4):34-42. https://doi. org/10.1177/00333549101250S407
WHO. Adherence to Long-Term Therapies: Evidence for Action. 2003. Switzerland: WHO, page 3.
van den Boogaard J, Boeree MJ, Kibiki GS, Aarnouste RE. The complexity of the adherence‐response relationship in tuberculosis treatment: why are we still in the dark, and how can we get out? Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(6):693-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 3156.2011.02755.x
Salla A Munro, Simon A Lewin, Helen J Smith, Mark E Engel, Atle Fretheim, and Jimmy Volmink, 2007. Patient Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research. PLoS Med. 2007 Jul; 4(7): e238. PMC1925126. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1925126/
Michael J DiStefano and Harald Schmidt, 2016. mHealth for Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence: A Framework to Guide Ethical Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016 Jun 20; 4(2): 211–221. PMID: 27353615 PMCID: PMC4982246. doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982246/
Jolliffe D, Murray J, Farrington D, Vannick C. Testing the Cambridge Quality Checklists on a review of disrupted families and crime. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2012;2(5):303-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1837
Chakrabartty A, Basu P, Ali KM, Sarkar AK, Ghosh D (2017). Tuberculosis-related stigma and its effect on the delay for sputum examination under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in India. Indian J Tuberc. 2018. 65(2):145-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijtb.2017.08.032
Tola HH, Shojaeizadeh D, Tol A, Garmaroudi G, Yekaninejad MS, Kebede A, Ejeta LT, Kassa D, Klinkenberg E. Psychological and Educational Intervention to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Ethiopia Based on Health Belief Model: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial. PLoS One. 2016.11;11(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. Pone.0155147
Demissie M, Getahun H, Lindtjørn B. Community tuberculosis care through ‘’TB clubs’’ in rural North Ethiopia. Soc Sci Med 2003:56(10):2009-2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00182-X
Gerrish K, Naisby A, Ismail M. The meaning and consequences of tuberculosis among Somali people in the United Kingdom. J Adv Nurs. 2012. 68(12):2654-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.05964.x
Sommerland N, Wouters E, Masquillier C, Engelbrecht M, Kigozi G, Uebel K, van Rensburg AJ, Rau A. Stigma as a barrier to the use of occupational health units for tuberculosis services in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017;21(11):75-80. https://doi.org/10.5588/ ijtld.17.0030
Thiam S, LeFevre AM, Hane F, Ndiaye A, Ba F, Fielding KL, Ndir M, Lienhardt C. Effectiveness of a strategy to improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment in a resource-poor setting: a cluster randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007:297(4):380-6. https://doi.org/10.1001/ jama.297.4.380
Wu PS, Chou P, Chang NT, Sun WJ, Kuo HS (2009). Assessment of Changes in Knowledge and Stigmatization Following Tuberculosis Training Workshops in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009:108(5):377-85. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60081-4
Balogun M, Sekoni A, Meloni ST, Odukoya O, Onajole A, Longe-Peter O, Ogunsola F, Kanki PJ. Trained Community Volunteers Improve Tuberculosis Knowledge and Attitudes Among Adults in a Periurban Community in Southwest Nigeria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2015.92(3):625-632. https://doi.org/10.4269/ ajtmh.14-0527
Macq J, Solis A, Martinez G, Martiny P. Tackling tuberculosis patients’ internalized social stigma through patient-centered care: an intervention study in rural Nicaragua. BMC Public Health. 2008 May 8; 8:154. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-154
Sommerland N, Wouters E, Mitchell EMH, Ngicho M, Redwood L, Masquillier C, van Hoorn R, van den Hof S, Van Rie A. Evidence-based interventions to reduce tuberculosis stigma: a systematic review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017;21(11):81-86. https://doi.org/10.5588/ ijtld.16.0788
Garner P, Smith H, Munro S, Volmink J. Promoting adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007, 85 (5):325-420. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.06.035568
Nur Aiza Idris,Rosnani Zakaria, Rosediani Muhamad, Nik Rosmawati Nik Husain, Azlina Ishak, and Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad, 2020. The Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Education Programme in Kelantan, Malaysia on Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Stigma Towards Tuberculosis among Adolescents. Malays J Med Sci. 2020 Dec;29. doi: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.6.10.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785272/
Amrita Daftary, Mike Frick, Nandita Venkatesan, Madhukar Pai, 2017. Fighting TB stigma: we need to apply lessons learned from HIV activism BMJ Glob Health: f 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000515 on 31 October 2017. https://gh.bmj.com/content/bmjgh/2/4/e000515.full.pdf.
Frezghi Hidray Gebreweld, Meron Mehari Kifle, Fitusm Eyob Gebremicheal, Leban Lebahati Simel, Meron Mebrahtu Gezae, Shewit Sibhatu Ghebreyesus, Yordanos Tesfamariam Mengsteab, and Nebiat Ghirmay Wahd, 2018. Factors influencing adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Asmara, Eritrea: a qualitative study. J Health Popul Nutr. 2018; 37:1 PMC5756387. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756387/