• Umar Abdullahi Tawfiq Department of Microbiology, Gombe State University, 760214 Tudun Wada, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria
  • Shamarina Shohaimi Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Syafinaz Amin Nordin Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Noor Hisham Mohd Nadzir Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Abdul Hafiz Ab Rahman Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nader Salari Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 6715847141, Kermanshah, Iran




Nigeria, Occurrence, Recurrence, Risk Factors, Typhoid


There is limited data on typhoid in Gombe, Nigeria, despite the high prevalence of the disease in the area. A lack of epidemiological data has hampered efforts to control the disease. This study aims to identify factors associated with the increased risk of typhoid infection and recurrence in the Gombe metropolis. This study used simple random sampling, and data were collected from 663 consenting respondents using a validated questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Chi-square test to determine risk factors for typhoid occurrence and binomial logistic regression to determine factors for recurrence. Typhoid occurrences were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy, having a houseboy or girl, not washing hands before handling food, low level of education, drinking unboiled water, eating commercially available foods or drinks, and having typhoid carrier at home. Respondents who were ‘not sure of being vaccinated’ (OR = 2.856, 95% CI 1.493-5.465), ‘do not have another typhoid patient at home’ (OR = 1.739, 95% CI 1.093-2.766), were more likely to have typhoid recurrences while those with ‘secondary school level education’ and ‘drank boiled water’ were less likely to have recurrences (OR = 0.480 95% CI: 0.234-0.982 and OR = 0.473, 95% CI: 0.266-0.842 respectively). These findings could be used as guidelines for future interventions against typhoid, maximising resource efficiency and improving the overall quality of life.


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How to Cite

Abdullahi Tawfiq, U., Shohaimi, S., Amin Nordin, S., Mohd Nadzir, M. N. H., Ab Rahman, A. H., & Salari, N. (2022). EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS FOR TYPHOID FEVER IN GOMBE METROPOLIS, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 22(2), 110–121. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.22/no.2/art.1656