THE FACTORS OF PRIMARY CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION UPTAKE AMONG THE URBAN POOR CHILDREN IN MALAYSIA
Reducing childhood immunization coverage has led to re-emerging of vaccine-preventable diseases among young children. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of complete childhood immunization among the low socioeconomic urban households’ children in Malaysia. A nationwide survey data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2016 was utilized to extract 2668 completed data of respondents who had a household income of less than RM 4,000 and living in urban areas were included in the analysis. The children’s home-based cards were used to verify the data on the primary childhood immunization status. Related data from the household and child health modules were extracted three levels of analysis were conducted using SPSS Version 25 that were descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis and multivariable analysis. The prevalence of complete primary childhood immunization uptake was 89.5%. Mothers of 20 to 29 years old, 30 to 39 years old, and 40 years old and above had 2.704 (aOR=2.704, 95% CI:1.255-5.827), 3.305 (aOR=3.305, 95% CI:1.526-7.160), 3.058 (aOR=3.058, 95% CI:1.165-8.029) higher odds of having children with complete childhood immunization status compared to those younger. Meanwhile, mothers who were self-employed, students and utilized private healthcare facilities had 0.2773 (aOR=0.273, 95% CI:0.138-0.540), 0.063 (aOR=0.063, 95% CI:0.014-0.288) and 0.200 (aOR=0.200, 95% CI:0.118-0.338) lower odds towards complete primary childhood immunization uptake among their children. Below global recommended coverage of complete primary immunization uptake was observed among the urban poor children. Mothers who were young, self-employed, students and utilizing private healthcare facilities should be targeted to improve immunization coverage among children or urban localities.
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