USING THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR TO EXPLORE FACTORS RELATED TO CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG WOMEN IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE
In developing countries, millions of women of reproductive age do not use contraception, while research on factors related to contraceptive use behavior are still lacking. The study aimed to identify the factors relate to the behavior of contraceptive use. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from January to March 2020 in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Data were collected using questionnaires from 369 females in reproductive age. The sample size was calculated using the Slovin formula with a 95% confidence level from 4,869 women of childbearing age. Using path analysis, it revealed that high intention had a direct effect on contraceptive use behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy have indirect effects on contraceptive use through intention. Knowledge had an indirect effect through self-efficacy and level of education through knowledge. Initiatives related to increasing contraceptive use behavior are needed to reduce the risk of unmet need. Furthermore, the results of this study can be used by stakeholders to formulate strategies in an effort to encourage family planning practices.
2. Bradley SEK, Croft TN, Fishel JD. Dhs Analytical Studies 25 Revising Unmet Need For Family Planning [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: www.measuredhs.com
3. Shah IH, Åhman E. Unsafe abortion differentials in 2008 by age and developing country region: High burden among young women. Reprod Health Matters. 2012 Jun;20(39):169–73.
4. Ahmed S, Li Q, Liu L, Tsui AO. Maternal deaths averted by contraceptive use: An analysis of 172 countries. Lancet [Internet]. 2012 Jul [cited 2020 Aug 5];380(9837):111–25. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673612604784
5. Agha S. Intentions to use contraceptives in Pakistan: implications for behavior change campaigns [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2020 Aug 10]. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/450
6. Tiyas, A.H; Anwar, M; Nawangsih U. View of Psychosocial Barriers of Unmet Need Among Woman of Reproductive Age. SoutheastAsian J Midwifery [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Mar 25];4(2). Available from: http://www.journal-aipkind.or.id/index.php/seajom/article/view/29/14
7. Thapa K, Dhital R, Rajbhandari S, Acharya S, Mishra S, Pokhrel SM, et al. Factors affecting the behavior outcomes on post-partum intrauterine contraceptive device uptake and continuation in Nepal: A qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):1–9.
8. Cates W. Family planning: the essential link to achieving all eight Millennium Development Goals. Vol. 81, Contraception. Elsevier USA; 2010. p. 460–1.
9. Glanz K, Rimer B k., Viswanath K. Health Behavior and Health Education. 2008.
10. Steele JS. Path Analysis Introduction and Example A simple example [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2021 Sep 9]. Available from: http://web.pdx.edu/~joel8/resources/ConceptualPresentationResources/PathAnalysis_Intro_and_Walkthrough.pdf
11. Mak HW, Kim J, Wang S. The Role of Parent-Adolescent Relationships in the Development of (Pre)Hypertension in Young Adulthood in the U.S. J Adolesc Heal [Internet]. 2019;64(2):258–64. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.08.009
12. Lombardi S, Santini G, Marchetti GM, Focardi S. Generalized structural equations improve sexual-selection analyses. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):1–20.
13. Adebowale A, Palamuleni ME. Determinants of Unmet Need for Modern Contraception and Reasons for Non-use among Married Women in Rural Areas of Burkina Faso. 2014;28(1).
14. Blomberg M, Birch Tyrberg R, Kjølhede P. Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 Aug 11];4:5840. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005840
15. Najafi-Sharjabad F, Zainiyah Syed Yahya S, Abdul Rahman H, Hanafiah Juni M, Abdul Manaf R. Barriers of modern contraceptive practices among Asian women: a mini literature review. Glob J Health Sci. 2013;5(5):181–92.
16. Mohsena M, Kamal N. Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh. Ibrahim Med Coll J [Internet]. 2016 Feb 4 [cited 2020 Aug 17];8(2):34–40. Available from: https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/IMCJ/article/view/26676
17. Kiene SM, Hopwood S, Lule H, Wanyenze RK. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda. J Health Psychol [Internet]. 2014 Dec 3 [cited 2020 Aug 10];19(12):1564–75. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3918248/?report=abstract
18. Roderique-Davies G, McKnight C, John B, Faulkner S, Lancastle D. Models of health behaviour predict intention to use long-acting reversible contraception. Women’s Health [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Aug 10];12(6):507–12. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5373259/?report=abstract
19. Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective 1. Vol. 2, Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 1999.
20. de Bruin M, Sheeran P, Kok G, Hiemstra A, Prins JM, Hospers HJ, et al. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors. Health Psychol [Internet]. 2012 Nov [cited 2020 Aug 10];31(6):695–703. Available from: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0027425
21. Carvajal DN, Ghazarian SR, Crowne SS, Brown PB, Pokras OC, Duggan AK, et al. Is depression associated with contraceptive motivations, intentions, and use among a sample of low-income latinas? Women’s Heal Issues [Internet]. 2014;24(1):e105–13. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.003
22. Do M, Fu H. Is women’s self-efficacy in negotiating sexual decisionmaking associated with condom use in marital relationships in Vietnam? Stud Fam Plann. 2011;42(4):273–82.
23. WHO. Health 2020: Education and health through the life-course [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file