ROLE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AND HIGH BODY MASS INDEX IN THE CAUSATION AND PRIMARY PREVENTION OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Non-communicable diseases are responsible for 71% of all deaths that occur across the globe each year. Physical inactivity and high body mass index are the major modifiable risk factors that play a key role in the causation and prevention of non-communicable diseases. This review aimed to comprehend the current literature on physical inactivity, high body mass index and their association with non-communicable diseases. A literature search was conducted for research articles and meta-analyses available on PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for the last ten years. Findings from the selected studies were used to determine the role played by physical inactivity and high body mass index in the causation of non-communicable diseases. According to the research, obesity has been labelled a pandemic and the majority of the world’s population live a sedentary lifestyle with physical paucity. Lack of physical activity is responsible for approximately 1.6 million deaths annually, whereas the prevalence of multimorbidity is 1.5 times higher in obese than those with normal weight. Obesity and physical inactivity are strong determinants of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and may induce carcinogenesis besides other physical and mental health issues. Lack of awareness about these risk factors, time and financial constraints, poverty, illiteracy, and unhealthy dietary practices are some of the factors that further increase the incidence of disease burden. Effective interventions related to diet and exercise are necessary if rates of non-communicable diseases are to be reduced through changing lifestyle practices.
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