KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES (KAP) THEORY TOWARDS PREVENTIVE MEASURES AMONG MALAYSIAN IN EARLY OUTBREAK OF COVID-19
Keywords:Attitude, Awareness, COVID-19, Knowledge, Practice, Preventive measures
Many efforts are currently underway around the world to improve public awareness about preventive measures and to disseminate appropriate information about COVID-19 in curbing the spread of the disease. This study aims to determine the level of awareness on control and prevention of COVID-19 among population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 participants in between March 30th to May 21st, 2020. A set of questionnaire that consists of five main themes: (1) socio-demographics, (2) awareness, (3) knowledge, (4) attitudes, and (5) practices towards prevention and controlling COVID-19 were distributed via online using google forms. The overall Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) scores was analyzed based on Bloom’s cut-off point of 80%. The results of this study show that Malaysians’ awareness highly influence their knowledge, attitude, and practices in preventing and controlling COVID-19 spread. Although the results are reasonably good, it is recommended for further awareness to be undertaken to continuously raise the awareness level and to remove any negative stigma and attitude that consequently produce better practices to prevent the spread of this virus, so that Malaysia is capable of stopping the COVID-19 infectious virus. Virtual awareness programs should be conducted to provide the public with the most up-to-date information on infection control procedures and how to maintain a hygienic environment, as well as encourage people to adopt social distance and avoid social gatherings.
MOH, Ministry of Health. Peningkatan kes sporadik harian dan kematian Covid-19 di Malaysia. http://covid-19.moh.gov.my/semasakkm/2021/06/peningkatan-kes-sporadik-harian-dan kematian-covid-19-di-malaysia. [Accessed on 4 July 2021]
Caputo, ND, Strayer, RJ & Levitan, R. Early self-proning in awake, non-intubated patients in the Emergency Department: A single ED's experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Academic Emergency Medicine 2020; 27(5): 375– 378.
MalaysiaKini News. https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/576523. [Accessed on 28 May 2021]
World Bank. COVID-19 to plunge global economy into worst recession since World War II. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2020/06/08/covid-19-to-plunge-global-economyinto-worst-recession-since-world-war-ii. [Accessed on 8 June 2020].
CNBC. WHO: countries that rush to lift restrictions risk ‘severe and prolonged’ damage to economy. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/04/03/who-says-countries-that-rush-to-lift-coronavirus-containment-risk-more-severe-and-prolonged-damage-to-economy.html. [Accessed June 29, 2020].
Sarkam NA, Hasan NIA, Jamil NI, & Jamal NA. Factor That Affect the Level of Awareness among Malaysian toward the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Solid State Technology 2020; 63(6): 17940-50.
Trevethan R. Deconstructing and Assessing Knowledge and Awareness in Public Health Research. Front. Public Health 2017; 5(194):1-6.
Kumar, Pinky SD & Nurudden AM. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards COVID-19 Guidelines among Students in Bangladesh BioRxiv 2021; 1-22.
Premnath P & John J. Knowledge attitude and practice toward preventive dental care among dental professionals in Chennai. Journal of Education and Ethics in Dentistry 2015; 5(1): 20-4.
Mahesh R, Arthi C, Victor S & Ashokkumar S. Hepatitis B infection awareness among dental graduate students: A cross sectional study. International scholarly research notices 2014; 2014(389274):1-6.
McCallum JM, Arekere DM, Green BL, Katz RV & Rivers BM. Awareness and knowledge of the U.S. Public Health Service syphilis study at Tuskegee: implications for biomedical research. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2006; 17(14): 716–33.
Chinenye NM. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of TB Diagnosed Patients in Rwanda towards TB Infection. Case of TB Diagnosed Patients in Kigali Urban and Rural Health, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2015; 5(8)1-19.
Meenapriya, M., Gayathri, R. & Priya, VV. Effect of regular exercises and health benefits among college students. Drug Invention Today. 2018; 10(7);1-3.
Schwartz NE. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of Canadian public health nurses. Journal of Nutrition Education 1976; 8(1):28-31.
Fattah FAMA & Dahleez KA. Public health awareness: knowledge, attitude and behaviors of the public on health risks during COVID-19 pandemic in sultanate of Oman. Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication 2021; 1-25.
Jaisankar AIL, Sasanka K, Kommi V & Ezhilarasan D. Google Knowledge and Awareness of COVID-19 among the General Public - A Questionnaire Survey. International Journal of Current Research and Review 2020; S-212-S-219.
Alahmadi YM & Thagfan SSA. A nationwide study on the knowledge, awareness, and practices towards COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2021; 20(1): 161-167.
Okoro J, Ekeroku A, Nweze B, Odionye T, Nkire J, Onuoha M, Ezeonwuka C & Owoh J. Attitude and preventive practices towards COVID-19 disease and the impact of awareness training on knowledge of the disease among correctional officers. Emerald Open Research 2020; 2(51):1-12.
Xu X, Han M, Lia T, Sun W, Wang D, Fu B, et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020; 117(20):10970–10975.
Bonyan R, Al-Karasneh AF, El-Dahiyat F & Jairoun AA. Identification of the awareness level by the public of Arab countries toward COVID-19: cross-sectional study following an outbreak. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice 2020; 13(1):1-10.
Kıraç R, Söyler S & Çavmak D. Knowledge and awareness level of the society about COVID-19 in Turkey: A cross sectional research. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine 2021; 21(1): 244-252.
Andrade C, Menon V, Ameen S & Kumar SP. Designing and Conducting Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Surveys in Psychiatry: Practical Guidance. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 2020; 42(5):478-481.
Kamil MJM, Abidin SZ, & Hassan OH. Assessing Designers’ Perception, Analysis, and Reflective Using Verbal Protocol Analysis. In Research into Design for a Connected World Springer, Singapore 2019; 51-61.
Ratnasingam J, Yi LY, Abdul Azim, AA, Halis R, Choon Liat L, Khoo A, Mat Daud M., Senin AL, Ab Latib H, Bueno MV, Zbiec M, Garrido J, Ortega J, Gómez MV, Hashim R, Zakaria S, Zainal Abidin S, & Mat Amin MNZ. Assessing the awareness and readiness of the Malaysian furniture industry for Industry 4.0. BioRes 2020; 15(3):4866-85.
Zhang B, Liu S, Tan T, Huang W, Dong Y, Chen L, et al. Treatment with convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Chest 2020; 158(1): e9–e13.
Azlan AA, Hamzah MR, Sern TJ, Ayub SH & Mohamad E. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in Malaysia. PLOS ONE 2020; 15(5):1-15.
Qutob N & Awartani F. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 among Palastenians during the COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional survey. PLOS ONE 2021; 16(1):1-11.
Desai AN & Patel P. Stopping the spread of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020; 323(15):1516.
Tooher R, Collins JE, Street JM, Braunack-Mayer A & Marshall H. Community knowledge, behaviours and attitudes about the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: a systematic review. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013; 7(6):1316–1327.
Mansur, NNH & Ahmad A. Knowledge And Prevention Practices Of Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease Among Parents And Caregivers In Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine 2021, Vol. 21(1): 29-36.
Lau JT, Kim JH, Tsui HY & Griffiths S. Anticipated and current preventive behaviors in response to an anticipated human-to-human H5N1 epidemic in the Hong Kong Chinese general population. BMC Infect. 2007 7(1):18;1-12.
Goodwin R, Haque S, Neto F & Myers LB. Initial psychological responses to influenza a, H1N1 (" swine flu"). BMC Infect 2009; 9(1):166;1-6.
Hasan NIA, Abidin SZ, Sarkam NA & Jamal NA. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Malaysian residence toward prevalent of COVID-19 pandemic in the early stage of outbreak: a cross-sectional study. Solid State Technology 2020; 63(2s): 5356-70.
Kaliyaperumal KIEC. Guideline for conducting a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study. AECS illumination 2004; 4(1): 7-9.
Mukaka MM. A guide to appropriate use of Correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal 2012; 24(3): 69-71.
Alabed AAA, Elengoe A, Anandan ES & Almahdi AY. Recent perspectives and awareness on transmission, clinical manifestation, quarantine measures, prevention and treatment of COVID-19 among people living in Malaysia in 2020. Journal of Public Health 2020; 1-10.
Mohsen F, Bakkar B, Armashi H, et al. Crisis within a crisis, COVID-19 knowledge and awareness among the Syrian population: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2021; 11(4):1-10.
Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT & Li Y. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. International journal of biological sciences. 2020; 16(10): 1745-52.
Wu Z & McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020; 323(13):1239-42.
Momattin H, Mohammed K, Zumla A, Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA. Therapeutic options for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)–possible lessons from a systematic review of SARSCoV therapy. Int. J. Infect 2013:17 (10): e792–e798.
Alsan M, Stantcheva S, Yang D, Cutler D. Disparities in Coronavirus 2019 reported incidence, knowledge, and behavior among US adults. JAMA Netw. Open 2020, 3, e2012403.
Pal R, Yadav U, Grover S, Saboo B, Verma A, Sanjay K & Bhadada. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 among young adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus amid the nationwide lockdown in India: A cross-sectional survey. Diabetes research and clinical practice 2020:166(108344):1-9
Banik R, Rahman M, Sikder T, Rahman QM & Pranta MUR. Investigating knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to COVID-19 outbreak among Bangladeshi young adults: A web-based cross-sectional analysis. Research Square 2020:1-16.
Abdelhafiz AS, Mohammed Z, Ibrahim ME, Ziady HH, Alorabi M, Ayyad M & Sultan EA. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitude of Egyptians towards the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Journal of Community Health 2020; 45(5):881-890.
Szymona-Pałkowska K, Janowski K, Pedrycz A, et al. Knowledge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incontinence. Biomed Res Int. 2016 (145):1-7.
World Health Organization. WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. 2020. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic. [Accessed on 28 June 2020].
Fathizadeh H, Maroufi P, Momen-Heravi M, Dao S, Köse S, Ganbarov K, Pagliano P, Esposito S & Kafil HS. 2020. Protection and disinfection policies against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Le infezioni in medicina 2020; 28(2):185–191.
Kumar A & Somani A. Dealing with corona virus anxiety and OCD. Asian J Psychiatr 2020; 51: 102053;1-2.
Han E, Tan MMJ, Turk E, Sridhar D, Leung GM, Shibuya K, Asgari N, Oh J, García-Basteiro, AL, Hanefeld J, Cook AR, Hsu LY, Teo YY, Heymann D, Clark H, McKee M & Legido-Quigley H. Lessons learnt from easing COVID-19 restrictions: An analysis of countries and regions in Asia Pacific and Europe. 2020; 396(10261):1525-1534.