• Anggi Setyowati Doctoral Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • Ah. Yusuf Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Setya Haksama Department of Health Administration and Policy, Public Health Faculty, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • Syamsul Firdaus Nursing Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Keywords: psychometric, , shift work disorder, validity, reliability


Nurses on shift work experience several symptoms such as excessive sleep, insomnia, feeling tired and fatigue. This situation could be inimical to health, and lead to the conditions known as shift work disorder (SWD). A tool is needed to measure shift work disorder among shift work nurses. It can be used to understand the ailment, and support strategies to prevent it. The aim of this study was to adapt SWD questionnaire for use in Bahasa. The study was a cross-sectional study among 201 female nurses who worked on shift duties at public hospital from March to April 2020. The questionnaires were self-administered via an online platform. SWD questionnaire was measured using three questions from previous study. It was used to measure sleep disorder related to work schedule. Permission to use this questionnaire was granted by original author. The process of translation and adaptation SWD questionnaire based on WHO studies. Cronbach alpha was used to measure internal consistency reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factor to examine construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the structural model fit of SWD. The cronbach alpha for SWD questionnaire was 0.834, which indicated adequate reliability. All of the items in SWD questionnaire had factor loading greater than 0.32, and the CR and AVE of SWD questionnaire were 0.951 and 0.751, which indicated good convergent validity. This study validates the psychometric properties of SWD questionnaire among Indonesia Female Nurses, including translation, validity, and reliability.


Eldevik MF, Flo E, Moen BE, et al. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts. PloS one. 2013;8(8):e70882.

Zhan Y, Liu Y, Liu H, et al. Factors associated with insomnia among Chinese front‐line nurses fighting against COVID‐19 in Wuhan: A cross‐sectional survey. Journal of nursing management. 2020;28(7):1525-35.

Min A, Min H, Hong HC. Work schedule characteristics and fatigue among rotating shift nurses in hospital setting: An integrative review. Journal of nursing management. 2019;27(5):884-95.

Ferri P, Guadi M, Marcheselli L, et al. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts. Risk management and healthcare policy. 2016;9:203.

Rhéaume A, Mullen J. The impact of long work hours and shift work on cognitive errors in nurses. Journal of nursing management. 2018;26(1):26-32.

Fadeyi BA, Ayoka AO, Fawale MB, et al. Prevalence, predictors and effects of shift work sleep disorder among nurses in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Sleep Science and Practice. 2018;2(1):6.

Åkerstedt T. Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occupational medicine. 2003;53(2):89-94.

Schwartz JR. Recognition of shift-work disorder in primary care. Journal of Family Practice. 2010;59(1):S18-S.

Haile KK, Asnakew S, Waja T, et al. Shift work sleep disorders and associated factors among nurses at federal government hospitals in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open. 2019;9(8):e029802.

Guerra PC, Oliveira NF, Len CA. Sleep, quality of life and mood of nursing professionals of pediatric intensive care units. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2016;50(2):279-85.

Nugroho A, Sulistomo A, Roestam AW. Asscociation between Workshift Pattern (2 Shift and 3 Shift) with Sleep Quality in Nurses at Two Military Hospitals–Jakarta (A Study Using PSQI Quesionner). Journal of The Indonesian Medical Association Majalah Kedokteran Indonesia. 2018;68(1).

Åkerstedt T, Wright KP. Sleep loss and fatigue in shift work and shift work disorder. Sleep medicine clinics. 2009;4(2):257-71.

Kalmbach DA, Pillai V, Cheng P, et al. Shift work disorder, depression, and anxiety in the transition to rotating shifts: the role of sleep reactivity. Sleep medicine. 2015;16(12):1532-8.

Jørgensen JT, Karlsen S, Stayner L, et al. Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. 2017:117-26.

Abdulmalik JO, Sale S. Pathways to psychiatric care for children and adolescents at a tertiary facility in northern Nigeria. Journal of public health in Africa. 2012;3(1).

Setyowati A, Chung M-H, Yusuf A. Development of self-report assessment tool for anxiety among adolescents: Indonesian version of the Zung self-rating anxiety scale. Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2019;10(s1).

Tzeng JI, Fu Y-W, Lin C-C. Validity and reliability of the Taiwanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in cancer patients. International journal of nursing studies. 2012;49(1):102-8.

Medicine AAoS. International classification of sleep disorders. Diagnostic and coding manual. 2005:51-5.

Quintana SM, Maxwell SE. Implications of recent developments in structural equation modeling for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist. 1999;27(4):485-527.

Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS, Ullman JB. Using multivariate statistics: Pearson Boston, MA; 2007.

Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: Guilford publications; 2015.

Chou C-P, Bentler PM. Estimates and tests in structural equation modeling. 1995.

Setyowati A, Chung MH. Validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in adolescents. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2020:e12856.

WHO. Process of translation and adaptation of instruments 2014 [cited 2011 21 May]. Available from:

Morera OF, Stokes SM. Coefficient α as a measure of test score reliability: Review of 3 popular misconceptions. American journal of public health. 2016;106(3):458-61.

Streiner DL. Starting at the beginning: an introduction to coefficient alpha and internal consistency. Journal of personality assessment. 2003;80(1):99-103.

Setyowati A, Chung M-H, Yusuf A, et al. Psychometric of the curiosity and exploration inventory-ii in Indonesia. Journal of Public Health Research. 2020;9(3).

Coakes SJS, L.G. SPSS analysis without anguish version 11 for windows Milton, QLD: John Wiley and Sons Australia2003.

Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, et al. Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1998.

Comrey AL, Lee HB. A First Course in Factor Analysis, 2nd Edn. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates; 1992.

Huang C-C, Wang Y-M, Wu T-W, et al. An empirical analysis of the antecedents and performance consequences of using the moodle platform. International Journal of Information and Education Technology. 2013;3(2):217.

Kline P. A Handbook of Test Construction: Introduction to Psychometric Design. New York: Methuen. Inc; 1986.

How to Cite
Setyowati, A., Yusuf, A., Haksama, S., & Firdaus, S. (2021). VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF SHIFT WORK DISORDER QUESTIONNAIRE AMONG INDONESIAN FEMALE NURSES. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(3), 145-150.