THE CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WITH THE PREVALENCE OF ATOPIC DISEASE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
Atopic diseases (AD) are a group of diseases involving the underlying immune system. The etiology of AD is believed to be multifactorial, caused by the interaction between genetic factors, the immune system, and environmental factors. This study was aimed to assess the correlation of environmental factors with atopic diseases in elementary school children. A cross-sectional design and questionnaires, developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), were used to determine the atopic disease record and environmental conditions in sample of 88 rural and urban elementary school children. The sampling method was purposive sampling with each one representatives of primary schools in rural and urban areas. The data were analysed using the chi-square test. There was a significant correlation statistically (p-value < 0.05) between asthma incidence to the floor condition (i.e., cement vs. ceramic tile) (p = 0.008). Rhinitis allergic and dermatitis allergic did not give significant correlations statistically (p > 0.05) to environmental conditions like the smoke-exposure area, food allergen, floor condition of the residence, and residence location. There was no significant relation between the environment and the atopic incident record of the elementary children. Floor condition was an environmental factor that significantly influence to asthma occurrence in elementary children.
2. Kang X, Tu H, Tian T, Huang Z, Luo L, Shen L, et al. Home environment and diseases in early life are associated with allergic rhinitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;118:47-52.
3. Nicolaou N, Siddique N, Custovic A. Allergic disease in urban and rural populations: Increasing prevalence with increasing urbanization. Allergy. 2005;60(11):1357-60.
4. Nurcahyo VE. Allergic rhinitis as a risk factor for chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis [Master thesis]. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University; 2009. http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/home/detail_pencarian/40990. (accessed 2 Sep 2020).
5. Kholid Y. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis at the age of 13-14 in East Ciputat by using the internasional study of asthma and allergy in childhood questionnaire in 2013 [Master thesis]. Jakarta: State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah; 2013. http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/bitstream/123456789/26431/1/YAHYA%20KHOLID-FKIK.pdf. (accessed 4 Sep 2020)
6. Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A, et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA2LEN and Allergen). Allergy. 2008;63(86):8-160.
7. Hamid F, Wiria AE, Wammes LJ, Kaisar MMM, Djuardi Y, Versteeg SA, et al. Risk factors associated with the development of atopic sensitization in Indonesia. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67064.
8. Kantor R, Silverberg JI. Environmental risk factors and their role in the management of atopic dermatitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2017;13(1):15–26.
9. Thong BY-H. The effects of environmental pollution and climate change on allergic diseases. Asia Pac Allergy. 2013;3(3):143-4.
10. Lameshow S, Hosmer DW, Klar J, Lwanga SK. Adequacy of sample size in health studies. England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 1997: 247.
11. Fuchs O, Genuneit J, Latzin P, Büchele G, Horak E, Loss G, et al. Farming environments and childhood atopy, wheeze, lung function, and exhaled nitric oxide. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):382-8.
12. Sánchez-Borges M, Fernandez-Caldas E, Thomas WR, Chapman MD, Lee BW, Caraballo L, et al. International consensus (ICON) on: clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity, a global problem. World Allergy Organ J. 2017;10(1):14.
13. Barnes C, Portnoy JM, Ciaccio CE, Pacheco F. A comparison of subject room dust with home vacuum dust for evaluation of dust-borne aeroallergens. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;110(5):375–9.
14. Illi S, Depner M, Genuneit J, Horak E, Loss G, Strunz-Lehner C, et al. Protection from childhood asthma and allergy in Alpine farm environments - the GABRIEL Advanced Studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(6):1470-7.
15. Zheng M, Wang X, Bo M, Wang K, Zhao Y, He F, et al. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis among adults in urban and rural areas of china: a population- based cross- sectional survey. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2015;7(2):148-57.
16. Passali D, Cingi C, Staffa P, Passali F, Muluk NB, Bellussi ML. The international study of the allergic rhinitis survey: Outcomes from 4 geographical regions. Asia Pac Allergy. 2018;8(1):e7.